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CBSE Class 10 English Main course Reading Skills Unseen Passages

Unseen Passages

Qs. 1-2. This section will have two unseen passages of a total length of 700-750 words. The arrangement within the reading section is as follows :
Q. 1. A Factual passage 300-350 words with eight very short answer type questions. (8 marks)
Q. 2. A Discursive passage of 350-400 words with four short answer type questions to test inference,
evaluation and analysis and four MCQs to test vocabulary. (12 marks)

Tips To Know:
Tips for solving comprehension passages :
1. Read the passage thoroughly. The reading should be quick.
2.Focus on the relevant details and underline them with a pen or pencil.
3.Read the questions carefully and go back to the passage to find the answers.
4.The answers are generally in a logical sequence.
5. Try to write the answers in your own words.
6.To find answers to the vocabulary based questions like synonyms, etc., replace the word with the meaning. If you find that it is the same in meaning, the answer is correct.
7. To find the correct option in Multiple Choice Questions, go through all the options. Re-read the passage and then tick the correct option.
Objective : Local global comprehension of a text. To identify the main points of the text.
Marking : 20 marks -1 mark for each correct answer. No penalty for spelling, punctuation or grammatical mistakes.

1. Factual Passages (8 marks each)

Q. 1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions/complete the sentences that follow: (8 marks)
Sniffer dog Tucker uses his nose to help researchers find out why a killer whale population off the northwest coast of the United States is on tKe decline. He searches for whale faeces floating on the surface of the water, which are then collected for examination. He is one of the elite team of detection dogs used by scientists studying a number of species including right whales and killer whales.

Conservation canines are fast becoming indispensable tools for biologists according to Aimee Hurt, associate director and co-founder of Working Dogs for Conservation, based in Three Forks, Montana.
Over the last few years, though, so many new conservation dog projects have sprung up that Hurt can no longer keep track of them all. Her organization’s dogs and their handlers are fully booked to assist field researchers into 2012.

“Dogs have such a phenomenal sense of smell”, explained Sam Wasser, director of the Center for Conservation biology at the University of Washington in Seattle. He has worked with scat-detection dogs since 199(g). Scientists have been using Conservation Canines in their research since 199(g). These dogs have enabled them to non-invasively access vast amount of genetic and physiological information which is used to tackle conservation problems around the world. Such information has proved vital for determining the causes and consequences of human disturbances on wildlife as well as the actions needed to mitigate such impacts.

The ideal detection dog is extremely energetic with an excessive play drive. These dogs will happily work all • day long, motivated by the expectation of a ball game as a reward for sample detection. The obsessive, high energy personalities of detection dogs also make them difficult to maintain as pets. As a result, they frequently find themselves abandoned to animal shelters, facing euthanasia. The programme rescues these dogs and offers them a satisfying career in conservation research.

Answer the following questions: (1×8 = 8 marks)  (Board 2014, Set 8L1922Q)
(a) According to the text there are a few________ detection dogs like Tucker.
(b) Tucker sniffs for whale________
(c) The dogs are special because they assist in research without ________
(d) The ideal detection dog ________
(e) The dogs expect________ as a reward of their hard work.
(f) ________of these dogs make it difficult to keep them as pets.
(g) These dogs find career in ________
(h) The word ‘euthanasia’ means ________

Ans. (a) elite team of.
(b) faeces floating on the surface of water.
(c) invasion.
(d) is extremely energetic with an excessive play drive.
(e) a ball game.
(f) The obsessive, high energy personalities.
(g) conservation research.
(h) painless killing.

Q. 2, Read the following passage carefully: (8 marks)  (NCT 2014)

Title: Power Foods
(1) Power foods are foods that provide rich levels of nutrients like fibre, potassium and minerals. With people becoming increasingly health conscious today, a lot of finess trainers encourage their clients to include these foods in their daily diet to increase muscle development. There are various ways of incorporating power foods in your daily diet. Of course, the key to enjoying power foods is proper preparation of these foods, the use of season-fresh foods, and indentifying your choice of flavour among power foods.

(2) Some of the recommended power food combinations are those that are prepared in our kitchens on a regular basis. Take for instance, the combination of chickpeas and onions. This combination is a powerful source of iron which is required by the body to transport oxygen to its various parts. Iron deficiency can lead to anaemia, fatigue, brain fog and tiredness. A study by the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry says that sulphur compounds in onion and garlic help in the absorption of iron and zinc from chickpeas. The combination is a hit with teenagers who need to be diligent about getting iron in their diet. A quick way to prepare this power food is to make a chickpea salad with chopped onions, chaat masala and cilantro.

(3) Another favourite combination with power food takers is yoghurt and bananas. This makes for a perfect snack after a rough game of football. Exercising bums glucose and thus lowers blood sugar. Yoghurt is packed with proteins that help preserve muscle mass, and bananas are packed with carbohydrates that help in refuelling energy and preventing muscle soreness. A quick and easy recipe with bananas is a banana smoothie topped with cool yoghurt.
(4) Among beverages, green tea is the best source of catechins that are effective in halting oxidative damage to cells. According to researchers at the Purdue University, adding a dash of lemon juice to green tea makes the catechins even more easily absorbable by the body. So, the next time you have instead of are friends serve them rounds of iced green tea with mint and lemon juice.

Answer the following questions briefly: . (1×8 = 8 marks)
(a) What are power foods ?
(b) What are the rules regarding the partaking of power foods ?
(c) What is the advantage of including onions and garlic in our diet ?
(d) Suggest a quick recipe with chickpea and onions.
(e) Why is yoghurt and bananas, an enriching power food ?
(f) Why is green tea a recommended power food ?
(g) . What is the advantage of combining green tea with lemon juice ?
(h) What is the key to enjoying power foods in a wholesome way ?

Ans. (a) Power foods are foods which provide rich level of nutrients like fibre, potassium and minerals.
(b) Power foods should be prepared properly using season-fresh foods and identifying one’s choice of flavour among power foods.
(c) Onion and garlic help in the absorption of iron and zinc from the chickpeas.
(d) A quick way to prepare chickpea and onions is to make a chickpea salad with chopped onions, chaat masala and cilantro.
(e) Yoghurt is full of proteins that help preserve muscle mass and bananas are packed with carbohydrates that help in refuelling energy and preventing muscle soreness.
(f) Green tea contains catechins which are effective in halting oxidative damage to cells.
(g) Combining green tea with lemon juice helps the body to absorb catechins more easily.
(h) Power foods can be enjoyed in a wholesome way by including them in our daily diet to increase muscle development.

Q. 3. Read the passage given below and answer the questions/complete the sentences that follow: (8 marks)   (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014)
A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world. There are many different species of sparrows. Sparrows are only about four to six inches in length. Many people appreciate their beautiful song. Sparrows prefer to build their nests in low places-usually on the ground, clumps of grass, low trees and low bushes. In cities they build their nests in building nooks or holes. They rarely build their nests in high places. They build their nests out of twigs, grasses and plant fibres. Their nests are usually small and well-built structures.

Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time. The eggs are white with reddish brown spots. They hatch between eleven to fourteen days. Both the male and female parents care for the young. Insects are fed to the young after hatching. The large feet of the sparrows are used for scratching seeds. Adult sparrows mainly eat seeds. Sparrows can be found almost everywhere, where there are humans. Many people throughout the world enjoy these delightful birds.

The sparrows are some of the few birds that engage in dust bathing. Sparrows first scratch a hole in the ground with their feet, then lie in it and fling dirt or sand over their bodies with flicks of their winds. They also bathe in water, or in dry or melting snow. Water bathing is similar to dust bathing, with the sparrow standing in shallow water and flicking water over its back with its wings, also ducking its head under the water. Both activities are social, with up to a hundred birds participating at once, and is followed by preening and sometimes group singing.

Answer the following questions : (1×8 = 8 marks)  (Board 2014, Set PRE2N18)
(a) The chief food for the adult sparrow is _________
(b) Sparrows live wherever _________
(c) The word, ‘species’ means_________
(d) Sparrows in high places._________
(e) _________ take care of the young sparrows.
(f) Sparrows take bathe in _________
(g) Bathing for the sparrows is a _________
(h) Bathing is followed by_________ and_________

Ans. (a) seeds.
(b) there are humans.
(c) kinds.
(d) rarely build their nests in high places.
(e) Both parents.
(f) dust, water Or snow.
(g) social activity. , ‘
(h) preening and group singing.

Q. 4. Read the passage given below and answer the questions/complete the sentences that follow: (8 marks)   (Board 2014, Set QUD9VQW)
A chimpanzee is one of the great apes and the nearest in intelligence to man. Scientists have examined its mental capacities and sent it into space in anticipation of man. Chimpanzees need little description. Being apes and not monkeys, they have no tails. Their arms are longer than their legs and they normally rim on all fours. They can also walk upright with toes turned outwards. When erect they stand 3-5 ft high. The hair is long and coarse, black except for a white patch near the rump. The face, ears, hands and feet are bare and except for the black face, the flesh is coloured.

Chimpanzees exhibit great concern for each other. When chimpanzees meet after having been apart they greet each other in a very human way by touching each other or even clasping hands. Chimpanzees have amazing social discipline. When a dominant male arrives, the rest of the chimpanzees hurry to pay respect to it. The dominant male is not allowed to wrest food from his inferiors. The members of a party also spend considerable amount of time grooming each other and themselves. Mothers go through the fur of their babies for any foreign particles, dirt, and ticks and they aid each other when they are injured.

Chimpanzees are the best tools users apart from man. Sticks 2-3 ft long are picked off the ground orbaalnfnjai branches and pushed into nests, then withdrawn and the honey or insects licked off. Stones are and ttecacfc nuts or as missiles to drive humans and baboons away from its food. Chimpanzees are not only toolunBUthut also toolmakers. They make their own rods by stripping the leaves off a twig or tear shreds off a chimpanzees learn all this by observing the older chimpanzees making and using them. So man is not the easily toolmaker, merely better at it than his relatives.

Answer the following questions : (1×8 = 8 marks)
(a) Chimpanzees are as_______ as men.
(b) Chimpanzees greet each other by_______ each other.
(c) Like man, chimpanzees are_______
(d) Chimpanzees_______ tails.
(e) Baby chimpanzees learn, all by _______
(f) Chimpanzees have amazing _______
(g) The dominant male chimpanzees is not allowed _______
(h) The word ‘wrest’ means_______

Ans. (a) intelligent.
(b) touching.
(c) both tool users and toolmakers.
(d) have no.
(e) observing the older chimpanzees.
(f) social discipline.
(g) to take food from inferiors.
(h) take away violently.

Q.5. Read the following passage carefully: (8 marks)
These days, it is not unusual to see people listening to music or using their electronic gadgets while crossing busy roads or travelling on public transports, regardless of the risks involved. I have often wondered why they take such risks : is it because they want to exude a sense of independence, or is it that they want to tell the world to stop bothering them ? Or is it that they just want to show how cool they are ? Whether it is a workman or an executive, earphones have become an inseparable part of our lives, sometimes even leading to tragicomic situations.

The other day, an electrician had come to our house to fix something. We told him in detail what needed to be done. But after he left, I found that the man had done almost nothing. It later turned out that he could not hear our directions clearly because he had an earphone on. Hundreds of such earphones addicts commute by the Delhi Metro every day. While one should not begrudge anyone their moments of privacy or their love for music, the fact is ‘iPod oblivion’ can sometimes be very dangerous.

Recently, I was travelling with my wife on the Delhi Metro. Since the train was approaching the last station, there weren’t too many passengers. In our compartment, other than us, there were only two women sitting cm the other side of the aisle. And then suddenly, I spotted a duffel bag. The bomb scare lasted for several minutes. Then suddenly, a youth emerged from nowhere and picked up the bag. When we tried to stop him, he looked at us, surprised. Then he took off his earpieces, lifted the bag, and told us that the bag belonged to him and that he was going to get off at the next station.

We were stunned but recovered in time to ask him where he was all this while. His answer : he was in the compartment, leaning against the door totally immersed in the music. He had no clue about what was going on around him. When he got off, earplugs in his hand, we could hear strains of the song.

(A) Read the above passage and answer the questions that follow: (1×5 = 5 marks)
(i) What reasons does the author offer for the people taking risks on the road ?
(ii) Why didn’t the electrician carry out the work properly ?
(iii) Why were the people in the Metro doubtful about the bag ?
(iv) Why were the passengers stunned ?
(v) Explain the term ‘earphone addicts’?

(B) Find words from the paragraph indicated which are similar in meaning to the words given below: (1×3 = 3 marks)  (Board Term-12012, Set EC2,046)
(i) inspite of (para 1)
(ii) absorbed (para 4)
(iii) picked (para 3)

Ans. (A) (i) Exude a sense of independence or to tell the world to stop bothering them.
(ii) He did not hear the instructions carefully and so did not do the work properly.
(iii) Nobody came forward to take the bag so, they doubted it to be a bomb scare.
(iv) At the carelessness and behaviour of the young boy.
(v) Persons who always wear earphones and keep listening to music.

(B) (i) regardless
(ii) immersed
(iii) lifted

Q. 6. Read the passage given below carefully: (8 marks)
Title: Dreams to Reality
(1) It was evening in the picturesque seaside town of Rameshwaram, on the southern edge of Tamil Nadu. A cool breeze was gently blowing in from the sea. Along with the sound of waves lapping against the shore could be heard the sweet sound of birds circling overhead.

(2) Among the children playing on the beach was a boy with wavy hair and dreamy eyes. This youngster was Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam who later became the eleventh President of India.

(3) While spending time with his friends, Abdul was attracted by the sound of the birds flying above. He carefully observed that a fledgling perched on a boat was trying to take off. It spread its wings, fluttered briefly and sprang up. The air seemed to give the needed thrust for its take off! The bird soared up into the sky. It steered its pace and course with great ease. How Abdul wished he could fly like those beauties in the air!

(4) This passion for flying, aroused by the beautiful birds, later inspired Abdul Kalam to design India’s first rocket which successfully sent a satellite Rohini, into orbit on 18th July 1980. It was called the SLV-3 (Satellite Launch Vehicle). At the time when Abdul was growing up, no one had even dreamt of such a happening.

(5) Rameshwaram, where Abdul was bom on 15th October 1931, was a small town with narrow streets lined with old houses made of limestone and brick. The town was famous for its Shiva Temple. Abdul stayed in the house with his father, mother, brothers and sister and led a secure and happy childhood.

(6) Abdul’s father, Jainulabdeen was a pious man. He led an austere life without depriving his family of the basic comforts.

(7) In this closely knit family, dinner was always a special meal. During dinner they exchanged views on a variety of topics ranging from family matters to spiritual subjects.

(8) The main income for Abdul’s family came from ferrying pilgrims across the sea between Rameshwaram and Dhanushkodi. Pilgrims visiting Rameshwaram made it a point to visit Dhanushkodi, twenty kilometres away in the sea. Dhanushkodi has religious significance.

(9) Ferrying pilgrims fetched good money and the family lived comfortably. However, a devastating cyclone lashed the shores of Rameshwaram and their boat was destroyed. The family lost their only source of livelihood in one swift, tragic stroke.

(10) The enterprising young Abdul wanted to help the family through the crisis. He realized that there was demand for tamarind seeds. He decided he would collect them and sell them to a shop near his house. His family wanted him to concentrate on his studies. He said he would study as well as help his family. Reluctantly, everyone agreed. Even while studying or enjoying the evenings with his friends on the beach, he set aside some time to collect tamarind seeds and sell them to a nearby shop. For this he was paid a princely sum of one anna!

(11) Besides selling tamarind seeds, he helped his cousin Samsuddin to sell the popular Tamil newspaper Dinamani to earn a little more money. At dawn, several bundles of the newspaper, printed in Madras (now Chennai), were thrown on to the platform of Rameshwaram railway station from passing trains. Trains did not stop at Rameshwaram statiqn during those days of the Second World War as almost all of them were commandeered to transport troops.

(12) Abdul, after picking up the bundles marked for his area, rushed and handed them over to Samsuddin, who gave Abdul a small amount for the service he had rendered. There was a great demand for Dinamani because people wanted to know about India’s freedom struggle and the latest developments in the war.

(13) This is how Abdul earned his first wages. However, it was the joy of being able to care for his family that Abdul cherished most. Even decades later, he recalls earning his own money for the first time, with immense pleasure and a sense of pride.

(A) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, answer the following questions: (1×6 = 6 marks)
(i) Who does this passage tell us about ?
(ii) What inspired Abdul to design a rocket ?
(iii) . What was SLV-3 ?
(iv) Where did Abdul spend his childhood ?
(v) Why was dinner a special meal in the Kalam’s family ?
(vi) What did Abdul cherish most about the memory of his first earning ?

(B) Find the words from the passage which mean the same as the following: (1×2 = 2 marks)
(i) disciplined/hard (para 8)
(ii) hard working and bold (para 10)
Ans. (A) (i) This passage tells us about Abdul Kalam Azad who later became the eleventh President of India.
(ii) The flight of a fledgling inspired Abdul to design a rocket.
(iii) SLV-3 or satellite launch vehicle was India’s first rocket which successfully sent a satellite Rohini into orbit on 18th July 1980.
(iv) Abdul spent his childhood in a small town with narrow streets lined with old houses made of limestone and brick.
(v) Dinner was a special meal in Kalam’s family because they all sat together and exchanged views on a variety of topics ranging from family matters to spiritual subjects.
(vi) It was the joy of being able to care for his family that Abdul Kalam cherished the most.

(B) (i) austere
(ii) enterprising

Q. 7. Read the following passage carefully: (8 marks)
One day, I hopped in a taxi and we took off for the airport. We were driving in the right lane when suddenly a car jumped out of a parking space right in front of us. My taxi driver slammed on his brakes, skidded and missed the other car by just inches ! The driver of the other car whipped his head around and started yelling at us. My taxi driver just smiled and waved at the guy. And I mean he was really friendly.

So I asked, ‘Why did you just do that ? This guy almost ruined your car and sent us to the hospital!’
This is when my taxi driver taught me what I now call the ‘The law of the Garbage Truck’.
He explained that many people are like garbage trucks. They run around full of garbage, full of anger, and full of disappointment. As their garbage piles up, they need a place to dump it and sometimes they’ll dump it on you. Don’t take it personally. Just smile, wave, wish them well, and move on. Don’t take their garbage and spread it to other people at work, at home or on the streets.

The bottom line is that successful people do not let garbage trucks take over their day. Life’s too short to wake up in the morning with regrets, so ‘Love the people who treat you right. Forgive the ones who don’t’. This attitude will help you sail through life. There will be fewer jerks and bumps. Learn to take the bad with the good for life can never be perfect. Acceptance of what is, is the solution. Don’t react, just accept and you will be a lot more happy.
Life is ten percent what you make it and ninety percent how you take it!

Answer the following questions : .
(i) The narrator boarded a taxi (a________ when all of a sudden a car jumped (b)________ (2 marks)
(ii) How did the taxi driver avert an accident ? (1 mark)
(iii) To what did he compare the yelling driver ? (1 mark)
(iv) The term ‘garbage’ in the context of the passage means________ (1 mark)
(v) The narrator learnt an invaluable lesson from the taxi river. What was it ? (1 mark)
(vi) Give words from the passage that means the same as : (1×2 = 2 marks)
(a) to move briskly (para 1)
(b) feeling of defeat (para 2)

Ans. (i) (a) to go to the airport. ,
(b) out of a parking space right in front of them.
(ii) The taxi driver slammed on his brakes, skidded and missed the other car by some inches.
(iii) He compared the yelling driver to a garbage truck. –
(iv) Full of frustration, full of anger and full of disappointment.
(v) He learnt that one must love the people who treat us right and forgive the ones who don’t.
(vi) (a) whipped
(b) frustration

Q. 8. Read the following passage carefully: (8 marks)
Title: Voice of Love
1. I was a below average student. Both in schools and colleges, rarely my teachers knew me by name. I don’t think I was a dunce; just that I didn’t have an academic bent of mind. Since failures were more a habit than an exception, a below par performance never disturbed me. Neither were my teachers proud of me nor did I make my parents feel proud of me.
2. Of course, my parents being noble-hearted, never gave up on me. They never put me down in the presence of others. In fact, to shield me, they always projected a positive image of me to the world.
3. In 1984, while pursuing my graduation in Mathematics, I had failed in one of the subjects in my fourth semester. I already had three arrears. For the first time, hearing about my failure, I saw tears in my father’s eyes. This was my first experience of seeing my father cry. I couldn’t handle his crying. To withdraw myself I escaped to the terrace of my apartment. I suffered a fear like I have never known before. I was trembling. I never wanted my parents to ever cry again because of my failures. But, I was scared. ”Was it too late to begin in life,” I doubted. I was already over 18, just about 50% marks in my four semesters, 4 arrears to clear and 3 regular paper to face in my fifth semester, no talent, no special abilities, never won a prize in my life, not a single certificate I truly wanted to make it very big in life, if not for my sake, just to make up for all that I had put my parents through. My thoughts were haunting me, “Rajan, you don’t have any taste of success. You just don’t know what it is to succeed.” With tears flooding, I cried, “Can I still make it big in life or have I missed the bus ?”
4.My neighbour, Vijayaraghavan, who learnt about the sobbing of my soul, casually said, “Rajan, the harder you press the spring the faster it will bounce back. So what if your life has been pressed by failures for 18 years. Decide to bounce back and bounce back big in life. Even God will not stop you.” Bounce back I did ! I bounced back big to clear all the 7 papers in first class and ever since I smile at my failures.
5. After all what is resilience the number : To get up one more time when you have fallen. I do not remember of times when life has pushed me down, but every time I have bounced back big, for, I can hear the message lingering from within me even louder, “The harder you press the spring the faster it will bounce back. Bounce back and bounce back big.”
6.Ever since, I have given enough opportunities for my parents to cry cry they do, glad they have a son in me.

(A) On the basis of your reading of the passage complete the following: (1×6 = 6 marks)
(i) The author was a below average student because he________
(ii) His failures and poor performance made his teachers and parents ________
(iii) The author couldn’t bear________
(iv) At the age of 18, the author felt a deep sense of fear and wondered whether ________
(v) After being inspired by his neighbour, he________
(vi) The message given by the author is ________
(B) Find words from the passage which are similar in meaning to the following: (1×2 = 2 marks)
(i) ability to recover quickly (Para 5)
(ii) difficult to forget (Para 3)

Ans. (A) (i) didn’t have an academic bent of mind.
(ii) unhappy/disappointed/not proud of him/dejected/displeased.
(iii) his father crying/the sight of his father crying/his father in tears.
(iv) he would be able to overcome his failures/he would be able to succeed.
(v) he realized he could fight back/there is no age to learn to fight back/one’s will is important to learn to succeed.
(vi) never give up/the harder you work the faster you bounce back/to get up one more time when you have fallen.
Note : Other suitable responses to be accepted.
(B) (i) resilience (ii) haunting

2. Discursive Passages (12 marks each)

Q. 1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions/complete the statements that follow: (12 marks)
Long, long ago, in a big forest, there were many trees. Among the cluster of trees, there was a very tall pine tree. He was so tall that he could talk to the stars in the sky. He could easily look over the heads of the other trees. One day late in the evening, the pine tree saw a ragged, skinny girl approaching him. He could see her only because of his height. The little girl was in tears. The pine tree bent as much as he could and asked her : “What is the matter ? Why are you dying ?”
The little girl, still sobbing, replied, “I was gathering flowers for a garland for goddess Durga, who I believe, would help my parents to overcome their poverty and I have lost my way”. The pine tree said to the little girl, “It is late in the evening. It will not be possible for you to return to your house, which is at the other end of the forest. Sleep for the night at this place.” The pine tree pointed out to an open cave-like place under him. The little girl was frightened of wild animals. The girl quickly crept into the cave-like place. The pine tree was happy and pleased with himself. He stood like a soldier guarding the place. The little girl woke up in the morning and was amazed to see the pine tree standing guard outside the cave. Then her gaze travelled to the heap of flowers that she had gathered the previous night. The flowers lay withering on the ground. The pine tree understood what was going on in the girl’s mind. He wrapped his branches around the nearby flower trees and shook them gently. The little girl’s eyes brightened. But a great surprise awaited her. The pine tree brought out a bag full of gold coins which had been lying for years in the hole in its trunk and gave it to the girl. With teary eyes she thanked her benefactor and went away.

(A) Answer the following questions : (2×4 = 8 marks)
(a) Why was the girl crying ?
(b) Where did the pine tree want the little girl to sleep for the night ?
(c) Why was the little girl disappointed when she looked at the flowers and what did the tree do to make her happy ?
(d) What lesson does this short story teach us ?

(B) Do as directed : (4 marks)  (Board 2014, Set 8L1922Q)
(e) What is meant by the word ‘cluster’ ? (Para 1)
(i) group (ii) team (iii) class (iv) party
(f) What is meant by the word ‘approaching’ ? (Para 1)
(i) calling (ii) touching (iii) coming close (iv) running towards
(g) What is meant by the word ‘wild’ ? (Para 2)
(i) cunning (ii) dirty (iii) unpolished (iv) dangerous
(h) What is meant by the word ‘ withering ‘ ? (Para 2)
(i) dead (ii) shrunk (iii) colourless (iv) unhappy

(A) (a) The little girl was crying because she had lost her way while gathering flowers for a garland for goddess
(b) The pine tree wanted the little girl to sleep in an open cave-like place under the tree itself.
(c) The little girl was disappointed because the flowers that she had gathered the previous night lay withered on the ground.
The tree wrapped his branches around the nearby flower trees and shook them gently so that the little girl may become happy getting so many flowers.
(d) The short story teaches us to help others in their time of need.
(B) (e) (i) group.
(f) (iii) coming close.
(g) (iii) unpolished.
(h) (i) dead.

Q. 2. Read the following passage carefully: (12 marks)
1. After a long day out in the scorching sun at Nizamuddin railway station, having checked out every bit of garbage disposed off trains, a group of ragpickers gathered for a chat in a rain-swept shelter. This was no regular gathering for them. It was a Mother’s Day gathering.
2. Most children had never heard the word but grew emotional once they got to know what the day signified. Gifts for their mothers ranged from promises of not running away, to earning enough to assure their mothers of some comfort some day.
3. When it came to actual celebrations for the day, a group of boys at the centre run by Chetna, an NGO, near the station, surrounded Manjula Rai. Some even pulled her hair and the rowdy ones calmed down after a stem glance from her. For many boys and girls, this 47-year old social worker is a face recognized as a help at hand. For quite a few of them, Manjula is the ‘mother’ who influences them.
4. When they settled down to talk, the children at Chetna, related their aspirations with thoughtful intent. Vikas Kumar, who felt shy to pronounce the word Mother’s Day, said he was determined to secure some day, quality life for his mother, who was a domestic worker. His promise to his mother on Mother’s Day was to take out his mother from a rented house and to give her a home with a better life, some day.
5. Vikas left school when he was just 9, but is now a motivator for other boys to break free of ragpicking and study through die Open School System. Today, Vikas, who is a Class VII student, is the pride of the Centre and Manjula has been a part of his journey all through. She has been convincing the parents of these children to understand their evolution from being a child labourer to a teenager who can acquire skills for a better life.
6. Aslam for instance, who giggled as the boys tried to pronounce Mother’s Day, knew the words ‘Mom’ and ‘Dad’ having watched T.V. serials and Hindi films. According to him : “I keep running away from home and fight with my Mom. But on Mother’s Day, when I go back, I will not fight and stay with her.” The traumatic life stories related by these children become a self-explanation for their aggressive behaviour and their suppressed feelings.

(A) Answer the following questions in about 30-40 words : (2×4 = 8 marks)
(a) What was special about Mother’s Day at the rain-swept shelter ?
(b) What were the ragpickers’ reaction about Mother’s Day ?
(c) How did the children celebrate the day at the Chetna premises ?
(d) Why is Vikas’ case inspiring for the ragpickers ?

(B) Do as directed: (4 marks)   (NCT 2014)
(e) When one is out in the scorching sun, it means the day is_________
(i) cool (ii) rainy (iii) very hot (iv) very dry
(f) The ragpickers had understood about Mother’s Day when Manjula told them what it_________
(i) signified (ii) promised (iii) gifted (iv) created
(g) When one hankers for something better, it becomes_________
(i) an emotional moment (ii) a dream moment (iii) an aspiration (iv) traumatic life story
(h) A term in the passage which means the same as ‘compelling’ is_________
(i) convincing (ii) scorching (iii) understanding (iv) pronouncing

Ans. (A) (a) At the rain swept shelter, a group of boys had gathered for a special occasion. It was a Mother’s Day
gathering and not a regular gathering.
(b) The ragpickers grew emotional as they had never heard the word before and thought of some gifts for their mothers in the form of promises.
(c) The children at the Chetna premises surrounded Manjula Rai as for a few of them, she is the ‘mother’ who influences them.
(d) Vikas’ case is inspiring for the ragpickers because he studied through the Open School System after breaking himself free of ragpicking.
(B) (e) (iii) very hot.
(f) (i) signified.
(g) (iii) an aspiration.
(h) (i) convincing.

Q. 3. Read the passage given below and answer the questions/complete the statements that follow: (12 marks)
“Something is coming uphill”, said Mother Wolf, twitching one ear. “Get ready”. The bushes rustled a little in the thicket and father Wolf dropped on his haunches under him, ready for his leap. Then, if you had been watching, you would have seen the most wonderful tiling in the world-the wolf checked in mid-spring. He made his leap before he saw what he was jumping at, and then he tried to stop himself. The result was that he had shot up straight into the air for four or five feet, landing almost where he had left the ground. “Man!” he snapped. “A man’s cub. Look!”
Directly in front of him, holding on a low branch, stood a naked brown baby who could just walk-as soft and as dimpled a little atom as ever came to a wolf’s cave at night. He looked up into Father Wolf’s face and laughed. “Is that a man’s cub ?” said Mother Wolf. “I have never seen one. Bring it here. How little! How naked! How bold!” she said softly. The baby was pushing his way between the cubs to get close to the warm hide. “Aha! He is taking his meal with the others. And so this is a man’s cub. Now, was there ever a wolf that could boast of a man’s cub among her children ?”
“I have heard now and again of such a thing, but never in our pack or in my time”, said Father Wolf. “He is altogether without hair, and I could kill him with a touch of my foot. But see, he looks up and is not afraid.” The moonlight was blocked out of the mouth of the cave, for Shere Khan’s great square head and shoulders were thrust into the entrance. Tabaqui, behind him, was squeaking: “My lord, my lord, it went in here!”
“Shere Khan does us great honor”, said Father Wolf, but his eyes were very angry. “What does Shere Khan need ?”
My quarry. A man’s cub went this way”, said Shere Khan. “Its parents have run off. Give it to me.”

(A) Answer the following questions : (2×4 = 8 marks)
(a) Why did Father Wolf drop on his haunches ?
(b) Why did he stop in the middle of his jump ?
(c) What did a man’s cub look like ?
(d) What did it do to keep itself warm ?

(B) Do as directed : (1×4 = 4 marks)
(e) What is meant by the word ‘bold’ ? (para 3)
(i) brave (ii) smart (iii) bright (iv) thrust
(f) What is meant by the word ‘spring’ ? (para 1)
(i) coil (ii) jump (iii) cushion (iv) bed
(g) What is meant by the word ‘altogether’ ? (para 4)
(i) combined (ii) cleverly (iii) completely (iv) quiet
(h) What is the opposite of the word ‘uphill’ ?
(i) bottom (ii) plain (iii) valley (iv) downhill (Board Term-12014, Set PRE2N18)

Ans:(A) (a) To be ready for a leap.
(b) Saw a man’s cub holding a low branch.
(c) Naked brown baby, soft and dimpled.
(d) Pushed his way between the wolf cubs to get close to their warm hide.
(B) (e) brave.
(f) jump.
(g) completely.
(h) downhill. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014)

Q.4.Read the passage given below and answer the questions/complete the statements that follow: (12 marks)
The ‘Little Tramp’, the unforgettable character Charlie Chaplin invented, was born purely by accident in 1915. While rushing to a film shoot in California, he grabbed clothes other people had left behind in the changing room. And when he emerged, he found he had created a personality everybody loved. A little guy in a bowler hat, a close-fitting jacket, a cane, outsize shoes and a brush-like moustache!
Before long, Chaplin found himself a star. That puzzled him, for he saw himself essentially as a shy British Music hall comedian. The U.S. acknowledged him as its king of silent film comedy. Soon, so did crowds all over the world.
But life wasn’t always a laugh for Charles Spencer Chaplin. Both his parents were Music Hall artists, who separated when Charlie was very young. His childhood was very sad, for his mother never earned enough to look after Charlie and his older brother, Sydney. Sometimes, Chaplin had to sleep on the streets and forage foe food in the garbage.
Charlie took his first bow on stage when his mother made her last appearance. It happened when her voice broke during a song. Her son stepped on stage and sang a popular song. That’s when a star was bom.
Through all these years of success, Charlie never forgot his troubled childhood. It made him recall a Christmas when he was denied two oranges and his bag of sweets for breaking a rule at the orphanage he went to after his mother’s death. It would have broken his heart, if the other children had not offered him a share of theirs. Spontaneously, the adult Chaplin gifted the orphanage with a motion picture machine and insisted that each child should have as many oranges and sweets as they pleased.

(A) Answer the following questions: (2×4 = 8 )
(a) Which unforgettable character did Charlie Chaplin invent ?
(b) Describe the personality created by Charlie, whom everybody loved.
(c) What did Charlie see himself as ?
(d) Give two reasons to show that his early life was very sad.

(B) Do as directed: (1×4 = 4 marks)   (Board 2014, Set QUD9VQW)
(e) The word that means ‘to search for food’ is_________ (para 3)
(i) stepped (ii) forage (iii) emerged (iv) orphanage
(f) What is meant by the word ‘invented’ ? (para 1)
(i) created (ii) wrote (iii) struggled (iv) laughed
(g) Find the word in the passage opposite in meaning to ‘bold’ ? (para 2)
(i) found (ii) shy (iii) silent (iv) puzzled
(h) Find the word opposite in meaning to ‘failure’ ? (para 5)
(i) troubled (ii) share (iii) motion (iv) success

Ans.(A) (a) The’Little Tramp’.
(b) A little guy in a bowler hat, a close-fitting jacket, a cane outsize shoes etc.
(c) As a shy British Music hall comedian.
(d) His parents separated when he was young-his mother could not earn enough-had to sleep the street- forage for food. (Any two)
(B) (e) forage.
(f) created.
(g) shy.
(h) success.

Q.5.Read the passage given below: (12 marks)
Cardamom, the Queen of all spices, has a history as old as the human race. It is the dried fruit of a herbaceous perennial plant. Warm humid climate, loamy soil rich in organic matter, distributed rainfall and special cultivation and processing methods all combine to make Indian cardamom truly unique in aroma, flavour, size and it has a parrot green colour.
Two types of cardamom are produced in India. The first type is the large one, which has not much significance as it is not traded in the future market. It is cultivated in North-eastern area of the country. The second type is produced in the Southern states and these are traded in the future market. These are mainly cultivated in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. As per the future market rules, only 7 mm quality was previously traded in exchanges. But later, it relaxed its norms, and now 6 mm quality is also traded in the exchanges.
The small variety, known for its exotic quality throughout the world, is now traded in India’s commodity future exchanges. Traditional auction markets also exist for trading in small cardamom in the country.
Cardamom is an expensive spice, second only to saffron. It is often adulterated and there are many inferior substitutes from cardamom-related plants such as Siam cardamom, Nepal cardamom, Winged Java cardamom, etc. However, it is only Elettaria cardamom which is the true cardamom. Indian cardamom is known in two main varieties : Malabar cardamom and Mysore cardamom. The Mysore variety contains levels of cineol and limonene and hence is more aromatic.
India was the world’s largest producer and exporter of cardamom till the 1980s. By 1990s Guatemala emerged as the leading producer and exporter of cardamom.
The main harvest season of cardamom in India is between August-February. Cardamom reaches yielding stage two years after planting. The primary physical markets of cardamom are Kumily, Vandenmedu, Thekkady, Puliyarmala in Kerala and Bodynaikkannur and Cumbam in Tamil Nadu. Cardamom auctions also take place in Sakalespur and Sirsi in Karnataka.
North India is the main market for cardamom produced in the country. Normally, domestic demand goes up during the major festivals such as Diwali, Dussehra and Eid. Colour, size and aroma are the major variables that shape cardamom prices in the Indian market. Cardamom price formation in India is also influenced by the output in Guatemala as that country controls the global markets.
Kerala is the main producer of cardamom and contributes up to 60% in total production. Karnataka produces around 25% cardamom of the total production. Ooty is the main producer of cardamom in Tamil Nadu and contributes around 10-15% of the total production.
Besides India, Guatemala also produces around 2,200 ton cardamom. On the other hand, India produces nearly 1,000-2,000 ton cardamom per year. Due to low quality of cardamom from Guatemala, it remains available at cheaper rates. Moreover, cardamom of Indian origin fetches $ 3-4 per kilogram higher rates than the ones from Guatemala.

(A) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, answer the following questions. (2×4 = 8 marks)
(a) Why is Indian cardamom unique ?
(b) What is special about the Mysore quality of cardamom ?
(c) What role does Guatemala play in the Indian market ?
(d) Write two sentences on the harvesting of cardamom.

(B) Find words from the options given below which mean the same as: (1×4 = 4 marks)
(e) permanent:
(i) unique (ii) perennial (iii) exotic (iv) old
(f) fragrance:
(i) herbaceous (ii) loamy (iii) aroma (iv) humid
(g) earlier:
(i) substitute (ii) exported (iii)main (iv) previously
(h) make poor in quality by adding another substances :
(i) adulterated (ii) emerged (iii) contribute (iv) remain

Ans.(A) (a) Indian cardamom is unique because it requires warm humid climate, loamy soil rich in organic matter,
distributed rainfall, special cultivation and processing methods.
(b) The Mysore quality of cardamom is unique as it contains higher levels of cineol and limonene and is more aromatic.
(c) Guatemala produces around 2200 ton cardamom and controls the global market.
(d) The harvest season of the cardamom in India is between August and February. It reaches its yielding stage two years after planting.

Ans.(B) (e) (ii) perennial
(f) (iii) aroma
(g) (iv) previously
(h) (î) adulterated

Q. 6. Read the following passage carefully:
(1) Tom Sawyer found Monday morning miserable. He always found it so because it began another week’s slow suffering in school. Tom lay thinking. Presently it occurred to him that he wished he was sick; then he could stay home from school. Here was a vague possibility. But no ailment was found. Suddenly, he discovered something. One of his upper front teeth was loose. This was lucky ; he was about to begin to groan, when it occurred to him that his aunt would pull it out, and that would hurt. So, he thought he would hold the tooth in reserve for the present, and seek further. Then he remembered hearing the doctor tell about a certain things that threatened to make patients lose a finger. So, the boy eagerly drew his sore toe from under the sheet and held it up for inspection. It seemed worthwhile to chance it, so he fell to groaning with considerable spirit.
(2) But Sid slept on.
(3) Tom groaned louder.
(4) No result from Sid! Sid snored on.
(5) Tom said, “Sid, Sid” and shook him and began to groan again. Sid said : ” Tom ! Say, Tom !” (No response.) “Here, Tom ! Tom! What is the matter, Tom ?” And he shook him and looked in his face anxiously.
(6) “Don’t groan so, Tom, it’s awful. How long have you been this way ?”
(7) “Hours Ouch! Oh, don’t stir so, Sid, you’ll kill me”.
(8) “Tom, why didn’t you wake me sooner ? Oh, Tom don’t! It makes my flesh crawl to hear you. Tom, What is the matter ?”
(9) “I forgive you everything, Sid. (Groan.) Everything you’ve ever done to me. When I’m gone.”
(10) “Oh, Tom, you am’t dying, are you? Don’t, Tom -oh, don’t. May be.”
(11) “I forgive everybody, Sid. (Groan.) Tell’em so, Sid.
(12) But Sid had snatched his clothes and gone.
(13) Sid flew down – stairs and said :
(14) “Oh, Aunt Polly, come ! Tom’s dying !”
(15) “Dying!”
(16) “Yes. Don’t wait – come quick !”
(17) “Rubbish! I don’t believe it!”
(18) But she fled up – stairs, nevertheless, with Sid and Mary at her heels. And her face grew white, too, and her lip trembled. When she reached the bedside she gasped out.
(19) “You, Tom! Tom, what’s the matter with you ?”
(20) “Oh, auntie, I’m.”
(21) “What’s the matter with you – what is the matter with you, child ?”
(22) “Oh, auntie, my sore toe’s mortified !”
(23) The old lady sank down into a chair and laughed a little, then cried a little, then did both together. This restored her and she said : “Tom, what a turn you did give me ! Now you shut up that nonsense and climb out of this.”
(24) The groans ceased .The boy felt a little foolish and he said :
(25) “Aunt Polly, it seemed mortified, and it hurt so I never minded my tooth at all”.
(26) “Your tooth, indeed ! What’s the matter with your tooth ?”
(27) “One of them’s loose, and it aches perfectly awful.”
(28) “There, there, now, don’t begin that groaning again. Open your mouth. Well – your tooth is loose, but you’re not going to die about that. Mary, get me a silk thread, and a chunk of fire out of the kitchen .”
(29) Tom said : “Oh, please, auntie, don’t pull it out. It don’t hurt any more. Please don’t, auntie. I don’t want to stay home from school.”
(30) “Oh, you don’t, don’t you ? So, all this row was because you thought you’d get to stay home from school and go for fishing ? Tom, Tom, I love you so, and you seem to try every way you can to break my old heart with your outrageousness.” By this time the dental instruments were ready. The old lady made one end of the silk thread fast to Tom’s tooth with a loop and tied the other to the bedpost. Then she seized, the chunk of fire and suddenly thrust it almost into the boy’s face. The tooth hung dangling by the bedpost, now. (From: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain)

(A) Answer the following questions:
(a) (i) Why did Tom hate Monday mornings ?
(ii) Why did he lay in bed thinking ?
(b) Why did Tom decide to use his sore toe as an excuse ?
(c) Why did Aunt Polly laugh and cry at the same time ?
(d) How did Aunt Polly pull out Tom’s loose tooth ?

(B) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following:
(e) unclear:
(i) miserable (ii) hazy (iii) vague (iv) sore

Q. 7. Read the following passage carefully: (12 marks)
Title: Adoration by Man
Other animals move about the world as nature made them. Why then, did man start to adorn himself by hanging
things round the neck, arms, waist and legs or putting things on his head.
(1) We can imagine many reasons. If an exceptionally strong or brave man succeded in killing an exceptionally large bear, might he not get the idea of boring a hole through one of its teeth with a sharp flint and lying the tooth round his neck in order to remind himself of his great achievement and to show his friends what a great man he was ? Gradually, it might have become the custom in that tribe for all strong and brave hunters to wear a bear’s tooth, and it might be regarded as a disgrance not to wear one and a sign that one was weak or very young.
(2) Another man might make an ornament of a coloured shell or stone simply because he liked it or because its shape reminded him of something. Then if he happened to escape from some danger when he was wearing it he might think the ornament had something to do with it- that it had magic qualities. And his friends and relations would not be satisfied until they had an ornament of the same kind.
(3) People who wear ornaments would soon learn to arrange them in different ways according to their size and colour in order to make them more decorative and impressive. A necklace found in Italy with the skeleton of young man of the Stone Age was quite elaborate. It consisted of stage’s teeth arranged at intervals with, between them, two upper rows made up of the vertebrae of a fish and row of shells.
(4) Another reason why men might tie feathers, horns, skins and all kinds of other things td themselves would be in order to make themselves look fierce and more terrifying to animals or to the men of other tribes.
(5) Objects such as sea-shells that came from a distance and were therefore, scarce for people living far inland— would come in time to have a special value and might be worn only by chiefs and their families in order to show that they were particularly important people.
(6) Primitive tribes living today often associate themselves with some particular animal or bird, such as an eagle or lion, or with a particular place, such as a mountain or river. Man may have started doing this kind of thing very early in his history. Then, every member of a group of family may have worn something such as feathers, claws or even a stone or wooden object of a certain shape or colour, to represent the animal or mountain or whatever it might be that they believed themselves to be connected with.
(7) So, as we have seen, clothing may have started as ornament or to distinguish one tribe from another or to show rank or because certain things were believed to have magical qualities. But in some places a time came when men and women began to wear clothes for other reasons. During the ice age, when the polar ice spread over far more of the world than it does today, some of the districts in which human beings were living became very cold and indeed. Man must have learnt that he would be more comfortable and more likely to survive, if he covered his body with the skins of animals. At first perphaps, he would simply tie a skin round his waist or over his shoulders but as time passed he learnt how to treat skin in order to make them softer and more supple and how to join them together in order to make better garments.
(8) Flint tools have been found buried deep under the earth floors of caves in which prehistoric men sheltered When the weather became colder. Some of the tools were probably used to scrape the inner side of skins to make them soft. Stone Age people may also have softened skins in the same way that Eskimo women do today, by chewing them. The teeth of Eskimo women are often worn down to stumps by the constant chewing of seal skins.
(9) Among the wonderful flint and bone tools and implements that later cave-men made, have been found some beautiful bone needles, some not bigger than those we use today: Although the people who made them had only flint tools to work with, some of the needles are finer and more beautifully shaped than those of Roman times.

(A) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, complete the following statements briefly: (2×4 = 8 marks)
(a) How did man start to adorn himself ?
(b) What was the speciality about the necklace found in Italy ?
(c) Why did man tie feather and skin to himself ?
(d) What did man realise during the ice age ?

(B) Find the words from the above passage which mean the same as the following: (1×4 = 4 marks)
(g) Relating to the earliest times :
(i) tribes (ii) particular (iii) primitive (iv) connected
(h) rub against a hard surface :
(i) scrape (ii) flint (iii) stumps (iv) implement

Ans. (A) (a) Man started to adorn himself by hanging things around his neck, arms, waist and legs or by putting things on his head.
(b) It consisted of stag’s teeth arranged at intervals with two upper rows made up of the vertebrae of a fish and one row of shells.
(c) Man tied feather and skin to himself so that he could look fiercer and more terrifying to animals or to the
men of other tribes. .
(d) During the ice age, man realised that he would be more comfortable and more likely to survive if he covered his body with the skins of animals.

Ans. (B) (e) (ii) ornament
(f) (i) elaborate
(g) (iii) primitive
(h) (i) scrape

Q. 8. Read the following passage carefully: (12 marks)
(1) Last summer I boarded a flight from the IGI airport. The airplane waited at the runway in a queue to take off for one hour, with the engines running. A lot of aviation fuel was wasted. Carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and water vapour were released into the atmosphere.
(2) With the entry of many players in the aviation industry, pollution has reached the skies as well. With the number of air line flights worldwide growing and expected to skyrocket over the coming decades, the problem of delayed arrival and departure will intensify.
(3) The inefficiencies in the air and on the ground caused by the system also mean wastage of fuel and excessive of CO2. No doubt, the air travel industry is coming under scrutiny for its role in climate change. Though aviation industry contributes only 2% of the total C-emissions. But with the rapid economic growth and ever increasing affordability of air travel, this industry will only expand at a much faster pace than ever before, thus increasing the rate of carbon emissions.
(4) Aircraft emission pollutes the air and threatens to become one of the largest contributors of global warming by 2050. At present, pollution from the aircrafts is less that 3% of the environmental pollution, but it is believed that aircraft emissions are currently one of the fastest growing contributors to global warming.
(5) Aviable and a sustainable solution comes from the next generation jet bio fuels made from algae or coconuts. Another sustainable alternative would be to put an analog traffic-control system, which is installed in a few airports around the world.
(6) Next Gen is the FAA’s (Federal Aviation Administration) long term plan to replace the current U.S. radar based air – traffic control system with one that operates using satellites and a global positioning system. Instead of a radar system, that updates the position of planes only as often as its dish rotates every 12 sec. or so, next Gen will use satellite data to locate planes in real time. Instead of relying on time consuming voice communication with a control tower, pilots will instantly know the location, speed and direction of the planes around them. Every minute saved from a flight plan means fuel saved and carbon emissions averted. And with jet fuel costing about $ 1.75 per gallon that save the airlines millions.
(A) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, answer the following statements briefly: (2×4 = 8 marks)
(a) What is the outcome of the entry of many players in the aviation industry ?
(b) What did the inefficiencies in the air on the ground caused by the system mean ?
(c) What does every minute saved from a flight plan means ________
(d) What is FAA’s long term plan ?
(g) capable of working successfully:
(i) sustainable (ii) viable . (iii) install (iv) update
(h) move in a circle round a central position:
(i) rotate (ii) analog (iii) satellite (iv) speed

Ans. (A) (a) With the entry of many players in the aviation industry, pollution has reached the sky. Moreover, the problem of delayed arrival and departure will also intensify.
(b) The inefficiencies in the air and on the ground caused by the system means wastage of fuel and excessive co2.
(c) Every minute saved from a flight means fuel saved and carbon emission averted.
(d) FAA’s long term plan is to replace the current US radar based on traffic control system with one that operates using satellites and a global positioning system.

Ans. (B) (e) (iii) emission
(f) (i) averted
(g) (ii) viable
(h) (i) rotate

NCERT Solutions