CBSE Class 10 Geography Forest and Wild Resources LAQ

Q.1. “Conservation of rapid decline in wildlife population and forestry has become essential.”Explain.
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Why do we need to conserve our forests and wildlife resources ? Explain any two steps taken by the communities to protect our forest and wildlife resources. [CBSE 2013]
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Why is conservation of forests and wildlife necessary ? In what way have conservation projects changed in the recent years ? [CBSE 2010]
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Assess the need for the conservation of forests and wildlife in India. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) Loss of cultural diversity : The loss of forest and wildlife is not just a biological issue but it is also correlated with cultural diversity. There are many forests-dependent communities, which directly depend on various components of the forests and wildlife for food, drinks, medicines, etc. Many of tribal communities like Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras, etc. have lost their habitat because of the destruction of forests.
(ii) Complex web of living organisms : We humans along with all living organisms form a complex web ecological system in which we are only a part and very much dependent on this system for our own existence. For example, the plants, animals and micro-organisms recreate the quality of the air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil that produce our food without which we cannot survive.
(iii) Large scale destruction of forests : Between 1951 and 1980, according to the Forest Survey of India, over 26,200 sq. km of forest areas were converted into agricultural lands all over India.

Q.2. Describe the different types of plant and animal species found in India. [CBSE 2013]
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Explain any five different categories of existing plants and animal species based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources with examples. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Normal species : These include those whose population levels are considered to be normal for their survival, such as cattle, sal, pine, rodents etc.
(ii) Endangered species : These include those species which are in danger of extinction. The several of such species is difficult if the negative factors that have led to a decline in their population continue to operate. For example, black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, etc.
(iii) Vulnerable species : These include the species whose population has declined to levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative factors continue to operate. For example, blue sheep, gangetic dolphin etc.
(iv) Rare species : They may move into the endangered or vulnerable category for example, blue bear, wild Asiatic buffalo.
(v) Endemic species : These are found in some particular areas usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers. For example, Andaman teal, Nicobar prigo.

Q.3. What steps have been taken by the government for the conservation of forest and wildlife in India ? Explain. [CBSE 2014]
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Write any three effective practices towards conserving forests and wildlife. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
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Explain any three measures taken by the Indian Government to protect wildlife. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
Ans. (i) National parks, biosphere and wildlife sanctuaries : To protect the biodiversity, the Indian government has established 100 national parks, 515 sanctuaries and 17 biosphere reserves.
(ii) The Indian Wildlife Protection Act :
The Indian Wildlife Protection Act was implemented in 1972, with various provisions for protecting habitats. An all India list of protected species was also published. The thrust of the programme was towards protecting the remaining population of certain endangered species by banning hunting, giving legal protection to their habitats and restricting trade in wildlife.
(iii) Projects for protecting specific animals : The central government has also announced several projects for protecting specific animals which were grately threatened, including the tiger, the one-horned rhinoceros, the Kashmir stag or hangul, the three types of crocodiles – the freshwater crocodile, the saltwater crocodile and the Gharial, the Asiatic lion and others.
(iv) Forest Policy : India is one of the few countries which has a forest policy since 1894. It was revised in 1952 and again in 1988. The main plank of the forest policy is protection, conservation and development of forests.
(v) Forest Research Institutes : Indian government has created many forest Research Institutes for the research, protection and development of the forests. IFS Dehradun is the oldest research institution of the country.

Q.4. Distinguish between Reserved forests, Protected forests and Unclassed forests.
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Classify the forests into three categories. [CBSE 2014]

Reserved Forests Protected Forests Unclassed Forests
(/) These are permanently earmarked either for production or other forest produce. These are protected from any further depletion. These consist of inaccessible forests or wastelands.
(/’/) More than 50% of the total forest land of India has been declared as reserved forests. Almost 1 /3rd of the total forest area of India is called as the protected forest. These consist of only 16% of the total forest areas of India.
(iii) These are controlled by the government. These are controlled by the government. These are owned by government and private individuals.
(/V) The forests of J & K, Andhra Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Maharashtra fall in this category. The forests of Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha and Rajasthan fall under this category. The forests of north-eastern states and parts of Gujarat fall under this category.

Q.5. “Conservation projects have changed their focus in the recent years.”Explain.  [CBSE 2014]
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In what ways the conservation project has changed in the recent years ?
Ans. The conservation projects are now focusing on biodiversity rather than on a few of its components. There is now a more intensive search for different conservation measures. Increasingly, even insects are beginning to find a place in conservation planning. In the notification under Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986, several hundred butterflies, moths, beetles and one dragonfly have been added to the list of protected species. In 1991, for the first time plants were also added to the list, starting with six species. The clear lesson from the dynamics of both environmental destruction and reconstruction in India is that local communities everywhere have to be involved in some kind of natural resource management.

Q.6. “Maintenance of ecological system is of utmost importance.”How can you contribute to conserve it and what values are developed through this activity ?  [CBSE 2014]
Ans. (i) We humans along with all living organisms form a complex web of ecological system in which we are only a part and very much dependent on this system for our own existence. For example, the plants, animals and micro-organisms re-create the quality of the air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil that produces our food without which we cannot survive. Forests play a key role in the ecological system as these are also the primary producers on which all other living beings depend.
(ii) We should save our environment by switching to green technology and by contributing less to the emission of carbon dioxide.
(iii) We should plant more and more trees, say no to plastic bags, travel by public transport, etc.
(iv) It will improve the quality of our lives as well as our children and will save our money to switch to alternate sources for power.

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