CBSE Class 10 Geography Resource and Development SAQ  

Q. 1. What is a Resource ? Give two examples.
Ans. Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically . feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as Resource. Examples, coal, water, air, minerals, etc.

Q. 2. What is the importance of natural resource ? Why is it necessary to conserve them ? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. Resources are important for the development of any country. For example, fossil fuels are essential to generate energy, mineral resources are important for industrial development, etc.
Necessary to conserve resources because:
(i) Their irrational consumption and over utilisation have led to socio-economic and environmental problems.
(ii) It takes million of years for the formation of natural resources.
(iii) Natural resources are available in fixed quantity and they are non – renewable.

Q. 3. What are the ways to classify resources ?
Ans. (i) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic.
(ii) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable.
(iii) On the basis of ownership-individual, community, national and international.
(iv) On the basis of the state of development- potential, developed and stock.

Q. 4. What is the role of humans in resource development ? [CBSE 2014]
Or
Explain the role of humans in resource development. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011],
Ans. (i) Resources are function of human activities.
(ii) Human beings interact with-nature through technology, and create institutions to accelerate their economic development.
(iii) Human beings transfer materials available in our environment into resource, and use them.
(iv) For example, river is a natural endowment and it becomes resource when its water is used for irrigation or power production.

Q. 5. What are renewable resources ? Give two examples.
Ans. The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources. For example, solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc. The renewable resource may further be divided into continuous or flow.

Q. 6. What are non renewable resources ? Give two examples.
Ans. These occur over a very long geological time. These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use. For example, coal, bauxite.

Q. 7. What are individual resources ? Give two examples.
Ans. Resources which are owned by private individuals are known as individual resources. Plots, fields, house, car, book, etc. are some examples of individual resources.

Q. 8. What are community owned resources ? Give two examples.
Ans. The resources which are accessible to all the members of the community are known as community resources. Village ponds, public parks, playgrounds, etc. are some examples of community resources.

Q. 9. What are national resources ? Give two examples.
Ans. All the resources which are under the control of state or union government are known as national resources. All the resources within political boundaries are national resources because the government has the power to acquire even private property. For example, Indian railway, Bhakra dam.

Q.10. What are potential resources ? Give two examples.
Ans. Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilised due to lack of capital or other reasons. For example, the western parts of India particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy, but so far these have not been developed properly.

Q.11. What are developed resources ? Give two examples.
Ans. These are resources which have been surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation. The development of resources depends on technology and level of their feasibility. For example, India has a cumulative total of 2,47,847 million tones of coal resources.

Q. 12. What is stock ? Give two examples.
Ans. These are material in the environment which have the potential to satisfy the human needs but could not be used as the human beings do not have the appropriate technology to convert them into usable form. For example, water (H20) is a compound of two inflammable gases i.e. hydrogen and oxygen but human beings do not have the required technology to use them as a source of energy.

Q. 13. What are reserves ? Explain with examples.
Ans. Reserves are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical ‘know-how’ but their use has not been started. These can be used for meeting future requirements. River water can be used for generating hydroelectric power but presently, it is being utilised only to a limited extent. Thus, the water in the dams, forests etc. is a reserve which can be used in the future. ‘

Q. 14. “Planning of resources is very important for a country like India”. Justify by giving three reasons.
Ans. (i) India has enormous diversity in the availability of resources. There are many regions which are rich in certain type of resources but are deficient in some other resources.
(ii) The states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits but lacks in infrastructural development.
(iii) The states like Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are rich in soil but lacks minerals.

Q. 15. ‘The availability of resources is the only condition for the development of any region’. What is your opinion on the statement ? Explain.
Or
Mention any three necessary conditions for the development of resources.
Ans. (i) Resources can contribute to development only when they are accompanied by appropriate technological development and institutional changes.
(ii) There is need for quality of human resources i.e. skilled workers who can convert natural resources into more useable form.
(iii) There is also a need for capital which is required to develop technology.

Q.16. Explain the relationship between nature, technology and institutions.
Ans. Nature contains resources. These resources are converted into usable form with the help of technology. Human beings interact with nature through technology, and create institutions to accelerate their economic development.

Q.17. ‘India has enormous diversity in the availability of resources.’ Explain.
Or
“India is rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources.”Support your answer with examples.  [CBSE Sept. 2012, 2014]
Ans. (i) The states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in mineral resources but lack industrialisation.
(ii) Arunachal Pradesh has an abundance of water resources, but lacks in infrastructural development. The state of Rajasthan is very well endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources. The cold desert area of Ladakh is relatively isolated from the rest of the country due to lack of means of transportation and communication.
(iii) Most of North-Eastern states are rich in natural vegetation but lacks in fertile soil.

Q.18. Study the following data carefully and answer the questions that follow :
LAND FEATURES OF INDIA
Land Features Area Covered (in percentage)
(i) Plains 43%
(ii) Mountains 30%
(iii) Plateaus 27%
Total 100%
(i) Name the land feature which occupies the highest surface area of India.
(ii) Give two advantages of the above land feature.
Ans. (i) The plains (43%) occupy the highest surface area of India.
(ii) (a) The plains provide opportunity for crop farming.
(b) The plains have good climatic conditions for human habitation.

Q.19. HOW over-irrigation and mining lead to land degradation ?
Or
How is over-irrigation responsible for land degradation ? Which states of India face this problem? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. Over-irrigation and mining lead to land degradation as :
(i) Over-irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to waterlogging which leads to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil. Water logging is a major issue in Punjab, Haryana, UR
(ii) The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantities of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land.

Q.20. Explain the major factors which are responsible for the formation of soil. [CBSE 2009 (O), Sept. 2011]
Or
Explain any three factors responsible for the formation of soil. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Relief, parent rock or bedrock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
(ii) Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers, etc. contribute to the formation of soil.
(iii) Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil are equally important.
(iv) Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.

Q.21. Mention the criteria on the basis of which Indian soils can be classified.
Ans. (i) Factors responsible for soil formation.
(ii)Colour
(iii)Thickness
(iv)Texture
(v) Age
(vi) Chemical and Physical properties.

Q.22. Explain the distribution of alluvial soils.
Ans. (i) This is the most widely spread and important soil of India.
(ii)These soils also extend in Rajasthan and Gujarat through a narrow corridor.
(iii)Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and Kaveri rivers.

Q.23. With reference to alluvial soil answer the following questions-
(i) How is it classified on the basis of its age ?
(if) Alluvial soil as a whole is very fertile. Give reasons.
Ans. (i) On the basis of age alluvial soil is classified as Bangar and Khadar.
(ii)Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime.

Q.24. Explain the distribution of black soil.
Ans. (i) Black soil is typical of the Deccan trap region spread over northwest Deccan plateau.
(ii) They cover the plateau of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
(iii) They are also found in the Godavari and Krishna valleys.

Q.25. Which soil is considered ideal for growing cotton ? How is the soil formed ?
Ans. Black soil. These soils have been formed due to the weathering of the lava spread over large areas during volcanic activity in the Deccan Plateau and different climatic conditions.

Q.26. (I) Which soils develop on crystalline igneous rocks ?
(ii) Why do the soils develop a reddish colour?
(iii) Name any two states where this soil is found.
Ans. (i) Red soil
(ii)The soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
(iii)Odisha and Chhattisgarh

Q.27. Mention the factors on which the land- use pattern of India depends upon. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Ans. The use of land is determined by physical as
well as human factors.
(i) Physical factors: Topography, climate and soil types.
(ii) Human factors: Population density, technological capability, culture and traditions.

Q.28. (i) ‘Humus content of the laterite soil is very low.’ Explain by giving two reasons.
(ii) Mention any two crops associated with the soil.
Ans. (i) (a) The soil is formed due to intense leaching. So the nutrients of the soil are washed away by heavy rains.
(b) The soil is formed in the regions of high temperature. So most of the micro ¬organisms, particularly the decom ¬posers, like bacteria, get destroyed.
(ii) Tea and Coffee.

Q.29. (i) ‘The arid soil lacks humus and moisture.’ Explain.
(ii) Name any two states where this soil is formed.
Ans. (i) The arid soil is found in dry climatic conditions. Due to dry climate and high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.
(ii) Rajasthan and Gujarat

Q.30. What is soil erosion ? Name any four states which have been affected by gully erosion.
Ans. The removal of soil by the forces of nature, particularly wind and water is called .soil erosion. Uttar Pradesh,
Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan.

Q.31. HOW does the soil of the Ganga-Yamuna plain differ from that of central Maharashtra ?
Ans. The Ganga-Yamuna plain has alluvial soils, whereas the central Maharashtra has black soils. The alluvial soils are formed by the depositional work of rivers in the river ualleys, flood plains and deltas. The black soils develop from volcanic rocks from where the lava flows.

Q.32. What are the causes of soil erosion in : (I) Shiwaliks or the Outer Himalayas.
(ii) North-Eastern parts of India.
(iii) Arid regions of India.
Ans. (I) Shiwaliks or the Outer Himalayas :
Destruction of vegetation is the main cause of soil erosion in hilly areas because when vegetation is removed, the soil surface becomes loose, and is more easily removed by the running water.
(ii) North-Eastern parts of India : Heavy rainfall which leads to frequent floods is responsible for soil erosion.
(iii) Arid regions of India : In deserts and dry regions, where there is little or no vegetation, wind is the most powerful agent of soil erosion, blowing away fine particles of sand depositing them in other areas making both the areas unproductive.

Q.33. What are the differences between the alluvial soil found in the upper course of rivers and that found in die lower courses ?
cbse-class-10-geography-resource-and-development-saq-33

Q.34. Which is the main cause of land degradation in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh ? How can it be checked ? Explain.[CBSE 2012]
Ans. Large scale over-grazing has caused severe land degradation.
Measures to check :
(i)Aforestation and proper management of grazing.
(ii)Planting of shelter belts.
(iii)Stabilisation of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.
(iv) Control on overgrazing.

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