CBSE Class 10 Social Civics Gender, Religion and Caste LAQ

Q.1. Name the movements which agitate for women’s rights. How have these movements helped in improving women’s conditions ?
Ans. Feminist Movements.
(i) Political expression of gender division and political mobilisation on this question helped to improve the women’s role in public life.
(ii) Now, women are working in occupations such as scientists, doctors, engineers, lawyers, managers, and college and university teachers which were earlier not Ans. considered suitable for women.
(iii) In some parts of the world, for example, ( ») By reserving some seats in the Lok Sabha in the Scandinavian countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland, the participation of women in public life is very high.

Q.2. Mention any four steps which can be undertaken to improve the women’s representation in politics.
Or
Suggest any three steps to improve the women’s participation in politics. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) To make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies
(ii) By reserving some seats in the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies for women.
(iii) Political parties should also give due representation to women members.
(iv) By raising the literacy rate.

Q.3. What is casteism ? How is casteism in India different as compared to other societies ?
Or
Describe any five features of the caste system prevailing in India. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) Organisation of people into social groups for the purpose of marriage, work and diet is known as the caste system.
(ii) The social structure of India is based upon the caste system. All societies have some kind of social inequality and some form of division of labour, but the Indian caste system is an extreme form of division of labour based on birth.
(iii) Although in most societies, occupations are passed on from one generation to another, but in India, it is different from other societies as in this system hereditary occupational division was sanctioned by rituals.
(iv) The Indian caste system was very rigid. Members of the same caste group were supposed to form a social community that practised the same or similar occupation, married within the caste grouf), and did not eat with members from other caste groups.
(v) Indian caste system continues to be closely linked to economic status.

Q.4. Mention any positive role of caste in politics.
Or
Describe the positive and negative aspects of relationship between caste and politics [CBSE 2013, 14]
Ans. (i) In some situations, expression of caste differences in politics gives many disadvantaged communities the space to demand their share of power.
(ii) In this sense, caste politics has helped people from the Dalits and the OBC castes to gain better access to decision making.

Q.3. What is casteism ? How is casteism in India different as compared to other societies ?
Or
Describe any five features of the caste system prevailing in India. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) Organisation of people into social groups for the purpose of marriage, work and diet is known as the caste system.
(ii) The social structure of India is based upon the caste system. All societies have some kind of social inequality and some form of division of labour, but the Indian caste system is an extreme form of division of labour based on birth.
(iii) Although in most societies, occupations are passed on from one generation to another, but in India, it is different from other societies as in this system hereditary occupational division was sanctioned by rituals.
(iv) The Indian caste system was very rigid. Members of the same caste group were supposed to form a social community that practised the same or similar occupation, married within the caste grouf), and did not eat with members from other caste groups.
(v) Indian caste system continues to be closely linked to economic status.

Q.4. Mention any positive role of caste in politics.
Or
Describe the positive and negative aspects of relationship between caste and politics [CBSE 2013, 14]
Ans. (i) In some situations, expression of caste differences in politics gives many disadvantaged communities the space to demand their share of power.
(ii) In this sense, caste politics has helped people from the Dalits and the OBC castes to gain better access to decision making.
(iii) Several political and non-political organisations have been demanding and agitating for the end of discrimination against particular castes, for more dignity and more access to land, resources and opportunities.
Negative :
(i) It disrupts social harmony.
(ii) It can divert attention from other pressing issues like poverty, corruption, etc.

Q.5. Why is the idea of communal politics fundamentally flawed ?
Ans. Most of these beliefs are fundamentally not true. People of one religion do not have the same interests and aspirations in most of the contexts. Every individual has his/her own choices, roles, positions and identities. There are many voices inside every community. All these voices have a right to be heard. Therefore, any attempt to bring all followers of one religion together in contexts other than religion is bound to suppress many voices within that community.

Q.6. What are Feminist Movements? What were their major demands ? [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2012]
Or
What was the Feminist Movement ? Explain the political demands of the Feminist Movement in India. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. These are the movements which are organised by various women organisations to create equality for women in personal and family life.
(i) These feminist movements demand equal rights for women in all spheres of life.
(ii) There were agitations in different countries for the extension of voting rights to women.
(iii) The agitations demanded enhancing the political and legal status of women.
(iv) The movements also demanded in improving the educational and career opportunities for the women.

Q.7. Explain the relationship between religion and politics.
Or
How are religious differences expressed in politics ? [CBSE Sept. 2011]
Ans. (i) Views of Gandhiji : Gandhiji used to say that religion can never be separated from politics. What he meant by religion was not any particular religion like Hinduism or Islam, but the moral values that are there in all religions. According to him, politics must be guided by ethics drawn from all religions.
(ii) Views of Human rights groups : Human rights groups in our country have argued that most of the victims of communal riots in our country are people from religious minorities. They have demanded that the government should take special steps to protect religious minorities.
(iii) Women’s Movements : Women’s movements have argued that family laws of all religions discriminate against women. So they have demanded that the government should change these laws to make them more equitable.

Q-8. How can religion influence politics ? Explain.
Ans. (i) Gandhiji believed that politics must be guided by ethics drawn from all religions.
(ii) Ideas, ideals and values drawn from different religions can and perhaps should play a role in politics.
(iii) People should be able to express in politics, their needs, interests and demands as a member of a religious community.
(iv) Those who hold political power should sometimes be able to regulate the practice of religion so as to prevent discrimination and oppression.
(v) These political acts are not wrong as long as they treat every religion equal.

Q.9. What is communal politics ? Explain.
Or
When does the communal problem become acute ?
Ans. Religion is used in politics in exclusive and partisan terms. This manner of using religion in politics is communal politics.
The communal problem becomes acute when :
• Religion is seen as the basis of the nation.
• When one religion and its followers are discriminated against another.
• When people start believing that beliefs of one religion are superior to those of other religions.
• When the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another.
• When the state power is used to establish the domination of one religious group over the rest.

Q.10. What is communalism ? What are the major beliefs of communal people ?
Ans. Communalism is a situation when a particular community tries to promote its own interest at the cost of other communities.
Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community. Communalism involves thinking along the following lines:
• The followers of a particular religion must belong to one community.
• Their fundamental interests should be the same. Any difference that they may have is irrelevant or trivial for community life.
• Communalism also follows that people who follow different religions cannot belong to the same social community. If the followers of different religions have some commonalities, these are superficial and immaterial. Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict.
• Sometimes, communalism leads to the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. Either one of them has to dominate the rest, or they have to form different nations.

Q.11. State any four provisions of the Indian Constitution which makes it a secular state. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011, 2012]
Ans. (i) No official religion : There is no official religion of the Indian state. Unlike the status of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, Islam in Pakistan and Hinduism in Nepal, our Constitution does not give a special status to any religion.
(ii) Fundamental Rights : Under the Right To Freedom of Religion, our Constitution provides to all citizens freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any.
Under the Cultural and Educational Right, our Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
(iii) Equality : The Constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. To ensure equality, untouchability has been banned.
(iv) Intervention of the state within religious communities : The Constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within the different religious communities.

Q.12. ‘Politics too influences the caste system.’ Explain.
Or
In what ways does politics influence caste system ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
How caste is politicised ? Explain any three points. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. Politics too influences the caste system and caste identities by bringing them into the political arena. Thus, it is not politics that gets caste-ridden, it is the caste that gets politicised. Politics in caste normally takes the following forms :
(i) Wide base : Each caste tries to widen its base to gain majority. Each caste gpdup tries to become bigger by incorporating within it, the neighbouring castes or sub-castes which were earlier excluded from it.
(ii) Coalition : Various caste groups are required to enter into a coalition with other castes or communities, and thus enter into a dialogue and negotiation. This strengthens the basic structure of democracy.
(iii) New groups : New kinds of caste groups have come up in the political arena like ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ caste groups.

Q.13. Explain the different aspects of life in which women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India. [CBSE 2008 (D), Sept. 2010, 2012]
Or
How women in India still face discrimination and oppression in various ways ? Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
In our country, women still lag much behind than men despite some improvements since independence. Justify this statement by giving four reasons. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) Literacy rate : The literacy rate among women is only 65.46 (2011 census) per cent as compared to 82.14 (2011 census) per cent among men. Similarly, a smaller proportion of girl students go for higher studies because parents prefer to spend their resources for their boys education than spending equally on their daughters.
(ii) Unpaid work : The proportion of women among the highly paid and valued jobs is still very small. Though on an average, the Indian woman works one hour more than an average man everyday, but most of them are not paid equally and therefore, their work is often not valued.
(iii) Sex ratio : In many parts of India, parents prefer to have sons, and find ways to have the girl child aborted before she is born. This has led to a decline in the child sex ratio (the number of girl children per thousand boys) in the country is merely 940.
(iv) Domestic violence : There are reports of various kinds of harassment, exploitation and violence against women. Both urban as well as rural areas have become unsafe , for women. They are not safe even within their own homes from beating and other forms of domestic violence.

Q.14. Explain the various forms that communalism can take in politics. [CBSE Sept. 2011, 2012]
Or
What is communalism ? Explain the various forms that communalism take in politics. [CBSE 2013]
Or
Explain the main features of Communalism. What form does it take in politics ? [CBSE 2013]
Or
What is communalism ? How is communalism a hinderance in the functioning of our democracy ? Explain. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. Communalism can take several forms in politics – in everyday beliefs, formation of parties based on communities, campaigning or asking for votes, formation of government, etc.
(i) Communalism in daily beliefs : The most common expression of communalism is in everyday life. These routinely involve religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and the beliefs in the superiority of one religion over the other religions. This is so common that we often fail to notice it, even when we believe in it.
(ii) Formation of political parties on the basis of communities : All the communities of the world have a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community. For those belonging to the majority community, this takes the form of majoritarian dominance. For those belonging to the minority community, it can take the form of a desire to form a separate political unit.
(iii) Political mobilisation on communal lines : It is another frequent form of communalism. Parties based on a particular community make use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeal and create fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena. In electoral politics, this often involves a special appeal to the interests or emotions of voters of one religion in preference to others.
(iv) Communal riots: Sometimes, communalism takes the most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre. India has suffered some of the worst communal riots at the time of partition. The post independence period has also seen large- scale communal violence.

Q.15. “The focus on caste in politics can sometimes give an impression that elections are all about caste and nothing else. That is far from true.”Explain by giving examples.
Ans. (i) Constituencies are a mixture of people belonging to different castes :
No parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear majority of one single caste. So, every candidate and party needs to win the confidence of more than one caste and community to win elections.
(ii) Different choices even within caste : No party wins the votes of all the voters of a caste or community because even within the community, people have different choices. When people say that a caste is a ‘vote bank’ of one party, it usually means that about two-thirds of the voters of that community.
(iii) Hunt for a dominating caste : Most of the political parties may put up candidates from the majority caste. But even this cannot guarantee their victory because some voters have more than one candidate from their castes, while many voters have no candidate from their castes.
History of elections : According to history of Indian elections, the ruling party and the sitting Member of the Parliament (MP) or Member of the Legistative Assembly (MLA) frequently lose elections in our country. This proves that though casteism and communalism play a major role in politics, but elections are not about caste and communalism.

Q.16. What forms can caste take in politics ?
Or
Explain any four forms of casteism in Indian Politics. [CBSE 2009 (D), 2010(0)]
Or
Explain the role of caste in Indian politics. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
Explain any three forms of caste politics in India. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) While choosing candidates : When parties choose candidates in elections, they keep in mind the caste composition of the electorate, and nominate candidates from different castes so as to get necessary support to win elections. (
(ii) While forming a government : When the governments are formed, political parties usually take care that representatives of different castes and tribes find a place in it.
(iii) While campaigning : Political parties and candidates in elections make appeals to people to give them their votes on the basis of caste. Some political parties are known to favour some castes, and are seen as their representatives. .
(iv) Universal adult franchise and the principle of one-person-one-vote, has
compelled the political leaders to raise the caste-based issues during elections. They do so to mobilise and secure political support. It also brought new consciousness among the people of castes that were hitherto treated as inferior and low.

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