CBSE Class 10 Social Science History Work, Life and Leisure HOTS
Q.1. (a) What were Chawls ?
(b) Mention any two features of Chawls.
Ans. (a) Chawls were multistoreyed structures which had been built from at least the 1860’s in the “native’ parts of the town
(b) These houses were largely owned by I private landlords, such as merchants, bankers and building contractors looking for quick ways of earning money from anxious migrants.
Q.2.Compare Bombay (Mumbai) and London keeping in mind the following points.
(i) Average space for each person.
(ii) No. of persons living in a house.
(iii) Underground railway.
Ans.(i) While every landowner in the 1840s enjoyed an average space of 165 square yards. Bombay (Mumbai) had a mere 9.5 square yards.
(ii) By 1872. when London had an average of S persons per house, the density in Bombay was as high as 20.
(iii) The first section of the underground railway in the world was opened on 10th January,1863 between Paddington and Farrington street in London Low underground railway in Bombay was constructed.
Q.3.Describe the development of film industry in Bombay. [CBSE. 2013]
Ans. (i) Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatwardekar produced India’s first movie in 1896. This was a scene of a wrestling match in Bombay’s Hanging Gardens. Then, Dadasaheb Phalke made “Raja Harishchandra’ in 1913.
(ii) By 1925. Bombay had become India’s film capital, it was producing films for a national audience.
(iii) The amount of money invested in about 50 Indian films in 1947 was 756 million. By 1987. the film industry employed 5,20,000 people.
Q.4.How did people entertain themselves in the chawls ? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) There was an open space in the middle of four chawls. There the magicians, monkey players or acrobats used to regularly perform their acts.
(ii) The Nandi bull used to come. There was the Kadaklakshmi. The performers beat themselves on their naked bodies in order to fill their stomachs.
(iii) Chawls were also the place for the exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.
Q.5. Describe two historic processes that have shaped modem cities in decisive ways. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (1) The rise of industrial capitalism :
(i) Many decades after the beginning of the industrial revolution, most western countries were largely rural.
(ii) Indusm’alisaTion changed the form of urbanisation in die modem period.
(iii) Cities were often the centres of political power, administrative network, trade and industry, religious institutions and intellectual activity, and supported various social groups such as artisans, merchants and priests.
(2) The establishment of colonial rule over large parts of the world :
(i) In the 17th century. Bombay was a group of seven islands under Portuguese control.
(ii) In 1661. control of the islands passed into British hands after the marriage of Britain’s King Charles-II to the Portuguese princess. The East India Company quickly shifted its base from Surat to Bombay.
(iii) Bombay became the capital of the Bombay Presidency in 1819,after the Maratha defeat in the Anglo Maratha war.