CBSE Class 10 Social Science History Work, Life and Leisure Notes

Metropolis : A large, densely populated city of a country or state, often the capital of the region.

Urbanisation : Development of a city or town.

Temperance movement : A largely middle- class-led social reform movement which emerged in Britain and America from the nineteenth century onwards. It identified alcoholism as the cause of the ruin of families and society, and aimed at reducing the consumption of alcoholic drinks, particularly amongst the working classes.

Individualism : A theory which promotes the liberty, rights or independent action of the individual, rather than that of the community. Presidency cities : “he capitals of the Bombay. Bengal and Madras Presidencies in British India.

Akharas : Traditional wrestling schools, generally located in every neighbourhood, where young people were trained to ensure both physical and moral fitness.

Depressed classes : A term often used to denote those who were seen within the caste order as ‘lower castes’ and ‘untouchables’. Reclamation : The reclaiming of marshy or submerged areas or other wastelands for settlements, cultivation or other use.

Chawls : Chawls were multistoreyed structures built since lS60s in the native parts of Bombay, presently known as Mumbai. These were largely owned by private landlords, who were looking for quick ways of earning money from the anxious migrants. Each chawl was divided into smaller one room tenements which had no private toilets.

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