CBSE Class 10 Social Sciences Civics Federalism Notes

Q.1.. What is federalism ? [CBSE 2014]
Ans. Federalism is a system of government under which power is divided between a central authoirty and its various constituent units. The various constituent units and the central authority run their adiministration independently and do not interfere unnecessarily in the affairs of one another.

Q.2. What is Unitary Government ?
Ans. Under the unitary system, either there is only one level of government or the sub units are subordinate to the central government.

Q.3. ‘The federal system has dual objective’. Mention the dual objectives.
Ans. To safeguard and promote the unity of the country, while at the same time accommodate regional diversity.

Q.4. Mention any two features of federalism.
Ans. (i) There are two or more levels of government, (ii) Different tiers of government govern the same citizens.

Q.5. ‘There are two kinds of routes through which federations have been formed.’ Name the two routes by giving one example of each.
Ans. (i) Coming together federations – USA (ii) Holding together federations – India.

Q.6. Name any two examples of coming together federation. [CBSE 2014]
Ans. USA and Australia.

Q.7. Name any two holding together federation. [CBSE 2014]
Ans. India and Spain.

Q.8. Mention the three tier system prevailing in India.
Ans. (i) Union Government
(ii) State Government
(iii) Local Government

Q.9. Categorise the following under Union list or Concurrent list.
(i) Currency (ii) Education
Ans. (i) Currency – Union List
(ii) Education – Concurrent List

Q.10. What is a Union List ?
Ans. Subjects of national importance like defence, foreign affairs, atomic energy, banking, post and telegraph are included in the Union List. Only the central government can pass laws on the subjects mentioned in the Union List because we need a uniform policy on important or national issues throughout the country. The Union List has 97 subjects.

Q.11. What is a State List ?
Ans. It comprises those important subjects on which the state government can pass laws. Subjects like police, local governments, trade and commerce, agriculture within the state are included in the State List. The State List has 66 subjects.

Q.12. What is a Concurrent List ?
Ans. The Concurrent List comprises of the subjects which are of common concern both to the centre and the state governments. Ordinarily both the central and the state governments can frame laws on these subjects. However, if there is a conflict between the central law and the state law, over a subject in the Concurrent List, the central law would be effective. This List includes subjects like criminal and civil procedure, marriage and divorce, education, economic planning, trade unions etc. The Concurrent List has 47 subjects.

Q.13. What are Residuary Powers ? [CBSE 2014]
Ans. Matters which are not included in the division of powers, are known as residuary powers. It was felt that there can be subjects which are not mentioned in either of these lists. The central government has been given the power to legislate on these ‘residuary’ subjects.

Q.14. Name an Indian state which enjoys a special status.
Ans. Jammu and Kashmir.

Q.15. What are Union Territories ?
Ans. These are areas which are too small to become an independent State but which could not be merged with any of the existing states.

Q.16. Who governs the Union Territories ?
Ans. The Union Government.

Q.17. What is the importance of judiciary in a federal government ?
Ans. The judiciary plays an important role in overseeing the implementation of constitutional provisions and procedures. In case of any dispute about the division of powers, the High Courts and the Supreme Court make a decision.

Q.18. What is decentralisation ? [CBSE 2014]
Ans. When power is taken away from Central and State governments and given to local government, it is called decentralisation.

Q.19. What is Gram Panchayat ?
Ans. It is a council consisting of several ward members, often called panch and a president or sarpanch.

Q.20. What is Panchayat Samiti ?
Ans. A few gram panchayats are grouped together to form a Panchayat Samiti or block or mandal.

Q.21. How are village Sarpanch or Panches elected?
Ans. They are directly elected by all the adult population living in that ward or village.

Q.22. How judiciary acts as an umpire in a federal nation?
Ans. Courts have the power to interpret the Constitution and the powers of different levels of government. The highest court acts as an umpire if disputes arise between different levels of government in the exercise of their respective powers.

Q.23. What is Zila Parishad ?
Ans. All the Panchayat Samiti’s or Mandals in a district together constitute the Zila Parishad.

Q.24. Who is a Mayor ?
Ans. He is an elected Chairperson of the Municipal Corporation.

Q.25. How had federalism helped Belgium to solve the ethnic problem ?
Ans. (i) Before 1993 most of the powers in Belgium were in the hands of the central government, i.e., Belgium had a unitary government.
(ii) After 1993 the regional governments were given constitutional powers. Thus Belgium shifted from a unitary to a federal form of government.

Q.26. Which law will remain prevalent if there is any conflict over a subject mentioned in the Concurrent list?
Ans. The law passed by the Union Government will prevail.

Q.27. How many languages have been recognised as scheduled languages?
Ans. 22 languages.

Q.28. Which two languages have been identified as the official languages? [CBSE 2014]
Ans. English and Hindi.

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