CBSE Class 10 Social Sciences Geography Agriculture Notes

♦ Agriculture: The art and science of cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including fishing and forests.

♦ Commercial Agriculture: Farming in which farmer grows the crop with the aim of selling it in the market.

♦ Cash Crops: Cash crops are those which are grown by the farmers to sell in the market, e.g., tobacco and cotton.

♦ Dry Farming: Dry farming is adopted in scanty rainfall areas. Such types of crops are grown which require less irrigation facilities.

♦ Extensive Agriculture: Agriculture in which the agriculturist tries to get the greatest output by bringing more and more new land areas under cultivation.

♦ Fallow Land: Leaving the field free without growing a crop for recoupment of soil fertility.

♦ Green Revolution: A breakthrough in seed technology which has led to a considerable increase in agricultural production, especially in wheat as a result of better inputs.

♦ Golden Fibre: Jute is the Golden Fibre of India as its export brings a lot of foreign exchange.

♦ Grbss Cultivated Area: The net sown area and the land cultivated more than once, together make the gross cultivated area.

♦ Horticulture: Intensive cultivation of vegetables, fruits and flowers.

♦ Intensive Agriculture: Increase in the agricultural production by using scientific methods and better agricultural inputs.

♦ Kharif Season: Kharif season starts with the onset of the monsoon i.e., June-July and continues till the beginning of winter i.e., October-November. For example, rice, millets etc.

♦ Mixed Farming: Farming in which animals are also used on the farm while raising crops.

♦ Multiple Cropping: When two or more than two crops are grown simultaneously on the same field.

♦ Net Sown Area: The land cultivated in a year is called the Net Sown Area.

♦ Plantation Agriculture: A large-scale farming of one crop resembling the factory production, based on capital investment and application of modem science and technology in cultivating, processing and marketing the final products.

♦ Rabi Season: The crops which are grown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. Wheat, Barley, Peas, Gram are some examples of rabi crops.

♦ Sericulture: Rearing of silkworms and producing raw silk.

♦ Support Price: Support price is the minimum and reasonable price fixed by the government at which the farmer can sell his produce either in the open market or to the government agencies.

♦ Shifting Agriculture: It is that type of agriculture in which farmers clear the forest land and use it for growing crops. The crops are grown for 2 to 3 years. When the fertility of the soil decreases, the farmer shifts to a new land.

♦ Subsistence Agriculture: Farming in which the main production is consumed by the farmer’s household.

♦ White Revolution: It is also known as ‘Operation Flood’ and is related to the increase in the production of milk.

♦ Biotechnology: Use of biological agents and processes for beneficial purposes is known as biotechnology.

♦ Zaid Crops: These are crops which are sown between the rabi and the kharif crops. Watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber and vegetables are some examples of zaid crops.

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