CBSE Class 10 Social Sciences The Age of Industrialisation Notes

♦ Proto : Indicating the first or early form of something.
♦ Stapler : A person, who ‘Staples’ or sorts woo! according to its fibre.
♦ Fuller : A person who ‘fulls’ – that is. gathers – cloth by pleating
♦ Carding : The process in which fibres, such as cotton or wool, are prepared prior to spinning.
♦ Spinning Jenny : Devised by James Hargreaves in 1764. this machine speeded up the spinning process, and reduced the labour demand. 3;. turning one single wheel, a worker could set in motion a number of spindles, and spin several threads at the same time.
♦ Sepoy : This is how the British pronounced the word, sipahi, meaning an Indian soldier in the service of the British.
♦ Gomastha : A paid servant of the British government to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth.
♦ Proto-industrialisation : The early phase of industrialisation in which large-scale production was carried out for international market not at factories but in decentralised units.
♦ Trade Guilds : These were the associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people within the trade.
♦ Jobber : Jobber was an old and trusted worker employed by the Indian industrialists to recruit the new workers.

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