Democracy and Diversity HOTS CBSE Class 10 Social Civics

Q.1. Examine two features of the social groups of each North Ireland and Netherlands. [CBSE Comp. 2008, 14]
Ans. (i) Both are predominantly Christians but divided between Catholics and Protestants.
(ii) In Northern Ireland, class and religion overlap with each other. If you are Catholic, you are also more likely to be poor, and you may have suffered a history of discrimination.
(iii) In the Netherlands, class and religion tend to cut across each other. Catholics and Protestants are about equally likely to be poor or rich.
(iv) The result is that Catholics and Protestants have had conflicts in Northern Ireland, while they do not do so in the Netherlands.

Q.2. The medal ceremony of 1968 Mexico Olympic became a historical landmark. Explain by giving examples.
Ans. (i) The incident provided a boost to the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.
(ii) (a) The athletes tried to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States during the Mexico Olympics.
(b) Their action succeeded in gaining international attention for the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.

Q.3. What action was taken by International Olympic Association against each of the three Olympians, Carlos, Smith and Norman Peter ? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) The International Olympic Association held Carlos and Smith guilty of violating the Olympic spirit by making a political statement.
(ii) The medals given to Carlos and Smith were taken back.
(iii) Back home, they were subjected to a lot of criticism.
(iv) Norman too, suffered for his action and was not included in the Australian team for the next Olympics.

Q.4. Discuss the role of political parties in the determination of the outcomes of social division. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) The outcome depends on how leaders of political parties raise the demands of any community.
(ii) It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework.
(iii) They are not at the cost of another community.
(iv) For example, the demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identify of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka.
(v) In Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands in such a way that these could not be accommodated within a single country.

Q.5. How did the three athletes, Tommie Smith, Johan Carlos and Peter Norman contribute to the Civil Rights Movements in US ? [CBSE 2010]
Ans. (i) Tommie Smith and Johan Carlos received their medals in Mexico Olympics, wearing black socks and no shoes to represent black
poverty. With this gesture, they tried to draw international attention to racial discrimination ‘ in the United States. This was supported by Peter Norman, the silver medalist, by wearing a human rights badge on his shirt. Smith and Carlos were standing with clenched fists upraised and heads bowed while the national anthem was playing.
(ii) Thus, they protested against racial discrimination of blacks. Their action succeeded in gaining international attention for the Civil Rights Movement in US.
(iii) Peter Norman’s support motivated non ¬blacks also. The disciplinary action against them gave momentum to the movement.

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