Fibre to Fabric – CBSE Notes for Class 6 Science
Clothes are made of different materials. We get these materials from both plants and animals.
Identify the materials given below as plants or animal product. Write P for the plant products and A for animal products.
Let us learn about how the story of clothing started, the different materials used to make clothes, and how they are made. Answers: Cotton socks, jute rope, silk cloth, lather shoes.
History Of Clothing:
About 30,000 years ago, people started using animal skins for clothing. It is believed that wool was used as early as 6000 years ago.
Domestication of silkworms to produce silk occurred around 3000 BC in China. In India, cotton came into widespread use around 3000 BC. These fabrics were not stitched. They were just wrapped around the body. Even today, sari, dhoti, and turban are unstitched pieces of cloth.
Fiber And Fabric:
Clothes are made mostly from fibres. Fibres are thin strands of thread, that are woven to make fabric, for example, cotton fabric, silk fabric, etc. The fabric is stitched to make clothes. For example, cotton fabric can be stitched into a cotton frock or a cotton kurta. There are two main processes of making fabric from fibre – weaving and knitting.
Weaving: Weaving involves making fabric by arranging two sets of yarn. It is done using a machine called loom, which can be hand-operated (Fig. 4.1) or power- operated. The pattern in which two sets of threads are arranged in a piece of woven cloth is called a weave (Fig. 4.2).
Knitting: Knitting involves making fabric by forming a series of connected loops of yarn by using knitting needles or machines. Sweaters are made from wool strands by knitting.
Natural And Synthetic Fibres: (Different Types of Fibres)
Fibres used to make fabric may be natural or synthetic. Fibres that are obtained from plants or animals are called natural fibres. Examples are cotton, jute, wool, and silk. Fibres that are made by man from chemical substances are called synthetic fibres. Examples are nylon, rayon, polyester, and acrylic. Let us learn more about plant fibres.
Cotton (Fig. 4.3), jute, coir, silk cotton, hemp, and flax are examples of plant fibres. Denim, used to make jeans, is made from cotton.
The cotton plant is a shrub. It grows well in black soil and warm climate. It needs moderate rainfall. Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant. A variety of textile products are made from cotton. In India, â€˜lchadi’, a coarse hand-woven cloth, is made from cotton.
Jute is a fibre obtained from the bark of the jute plant (Fig. 4.6). It can be grown in different soil types, ranging from clayey to sandy soil. It grows best in loamy soil (mixture of sand, silt, and clay), sandy soil, and clayey soil. It grows well in regions where it rains a lot. Almost 80% of the world’s high-quality jute comes from Bangladesh. Bangladesh, India, China, Nepal, and Thailand are the main producers of jute.
Other Useful Plant Fibres:
There are other important plant fibres as well.
Coir: Coir is the fibre obtained from the outer covering or the husk of the coconut. Usually coconuts are left in water for a few months. The husk is then separated from the nut and beaten with wooden mallets to get the fibre. The fibre thus obtained is spun and dyed and is ready for weaving. Coir is used to make several household products like rope and floor covering and also as a stuffing in mattresses and pillows.
Silk cotton: Silk cotton is another plant fibre that is commonly used as a stuffing in pillow, sleeping bag, and life jacket. This fibre is obtained from the silk cotton tree, also called kapok.
The fruits of the kapok tree contain fibres that are light and fluffy (like cotton). When the fruit ripens, it bursts open, releasing the fibres.
Hemp: Hemp fibres are obtained from the stem of the hemp plant. Hemp fibres are used in the production of ropes, carpets, nets, clothes, and paper.
Flax Fibres obtained from the stem of the flax plant are woven to make a fabric called linen. Flax fibres are also used in the production of rope and high-quality paper.
Key Words :
Fabric The material made by weaving the threads from fibres is called fabric.
Weaving Weaving involves the making of fabric from yarn.
Ginning The process of separating the cotton fibres from its seeds is called ginning.
Spinning The process of making yarn from fibres is called spinning.
Retting The process of rotting the stems of the plants in water to remove the sticky substance and separate fibres is called retting.
• Clothing materials are obtained from both plants and animals.
• Fibres are woven to make fabrics and fabrics are stitched to make clothes.
• Fibres may be natural or synthetic.
• Cotton, jute, coir, silk cotton, hemp, and flax are some plant fibres.