Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond –  CBSE Notes for Class 12 History

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• Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in Porbandar on 2nd October, 1869.
• Gandhiji left for South Africa as a barrister to argue a case in 1893.
• Gandhiji returned from South Africa in Jan, 1915.
• Gopal Krishna Gokhale- The political Guru of Mahatma Gandhi
• Peasant Movement in Bardoli-1928
• BHU stands for-Benaras Hindu University
• Khilafat Movement-1920
• Peasant Movement in Bardoli-1928
• Resolution of Pooma Swaraj passed in Congress Session in Lahore on 26th Jan, 1930
• Civil Disobedience Movement begins- March-April 1930
• Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed- March 1931
• Second Round Table Conference held in London-Dee 1930
• Government of India Act promulagated -1935
• Provincial Government formed by Congress in some provinces-193 7
• Second World War broke out- Sep 1939
• Congress Provincial Governments resign- 1939
• Quit India Movement begins- Aug 1942
• India becomes independent- 15th Aug 1947
• In 1905, Bengal, the biggest province of British India and included Bihar and some parts of Orissa, was partitioned by Viceroy Curzon. It enraged people all over India. Both the Moderates and the Radicals unitedly oppressed the British action. This led to the birth of the Swadeshi Movement, which boycotted British institutions and goods.
• An important development came in 1906 with the formation of the All India Muslim League at Dacca. The founder members of the League were Muslim landlords and nawabs. They supported the partition of Bengal and demanded for separate electorates for Muslims.
• However, in the year 1916, the Congress and the Muslim League decided to work together for representative government in the country.
• The growth of mass nationalism began to take place after 1919. Peasants, tribals, students and women became involved in the struggle against the British rule.
• Mahatma Gandhi emerged as a mass leader. He, first of all, toured the entire country in order to understand the people, their needs and the overall situation.
• Afterwards, he led to local movements in Champaran, Kheda and Ahmedabad in which he got immense success.
• In 1919 Gandhiji started Satyagraha Movement against the Rowlett Act that the British had just passed. The Act curbed fundamental rights such as the freedom of expression and strengthened the police powers.
• In April 1919, there were a number of demonstrations and hartals in the country against this Act. The government used hartal measures to suppress them. The Jallianwala Bagh atrocities in Amritsar on Baishakhi Day were a part of this suppression.
• In the year 1920, the British did another wrong known as khilafat movement. The British imposed a harsh treaty on the Turkish Sultan also known as Khalifa. This enraged Muslims and Khalifa agitation started under the leadership of Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. They wished to initiate a full-fledged Non-Cooperation Movement. Gandhiji supported their call and urged the congress to campaign against Jallianwala massacre, and demand swaraj.
• During the years 1921-22, the Non-Cooperation Movement gained momentum because it got a wide support. However, it was abruptly called off by Mahatma Gandhi when on February 1922 a crowd of peasants set fire to a police station in Chauri Chaura. twenty two policemen were killed on that day. It hurt Mahatma Gandhi because he had never thought that people would go violent. He always wished to drive away the British by violent methods.
• The Congress now resolved to fight for Purna Swaraj (complete independence under the presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru.
• Now efforts began to be made in this direction. In 1930, Gandhiji started Dandi March against the Salt Law. He got immense support from the people.
• The combined struggles of the Indian people bore fruit when the Government of India Act of 1935 prescribed provincial autonomy and the government announced elections to the provincial legislatures in 1937.
• In September 1939, the Second World War broke out. The Congress leaders were ready to support the British war effort. But in return they wanted independence after the war. The British refused to concede the demand.
• A new phase of movement popularly known as Quit India Movement was initiated in August 1942 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. As a result prominent leaders were jailed at once. But the movement spread.
• In between these events the Muslim League began to demand independent states for Muslims in the north-western and eastern areas of the country. Mahatma Gandhi was not in favour of this.
• The League began to think that Muslims were a minority and they would always have to play second fiddle in any democratic structure. The Congress’s rejection of the Leagues desire to form a joint Congress-League government in the United Provinces in 1937 further annoyed the League.
• In 1945, the British opened negotiations between the Congress, the League and themselves for the independence of India. The talks failed because the League then wanted Pakistan.
• In March 1946, the British cabinet sent a three-member mission to Delhi to examine the League’s demand for Pakistan and to suggest a suitable political framework for a free India.
• The Mission suggested that India should remain united and constitute itself as a loose confederation with some autonomy for Muslim majority areas. Neither the Congress nor the League agreed to it. Now, partition of India became inevitable.
• Finally, Pakistan came into existence. The violence of partition shook both the newly- independent countries—India and Pakistan. It marred the joy of independence.
1. Moderate: A person who is against taking extreme action.
2. Repeal: To undo law.
3. Radical: A person who welcomes new ideas or opinions.
4. Revolutionary Violence: The use of violence to make a radical change within society.
5. Council: An appointed or elected body of people with an administrative advisory or representative function.
6. Knighthood: An honour granted by British crown for exceptional personal achievement or religious public service.
7. Picket: A person or a group of people protesting outside a building or shop to prevent others from entering.
8. Mahanta: Religious functionaries of Sikh gurudwaras.
9. Illegal eviction: Forcible and unlawful throwing out of tenants from the land they rent.
10. RSS: It stands for Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.
11. Puma Swaraj: Complete independence.
12. Provincial Autonomy: Capacity of the provinces to make relatively independent decisions while remaining within a federation.
13. General Constituencies: Election districts with no reservations for any religious or other community.
14. Refugee: One who has been forced to leave his country or home due to some political, or social reasons.
Time line:
1. 1905  Bengal got partitioned
2. 1915  Mahatma Gandhi came to India from South Africa.
3. 1919  The Rowlatt Satyagraha started. The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place.
4. 1920  The Non-Coopreation Movement started.
5. 1922  Gandhiji called off the Non-Cooperation Movement.