Q1. Multiple choice questions:
(i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for depletion of flora and fauna?
(a) Agricultural expansion
(b) Large scale developmental projects
(c) Grazing and fuel wood collection
(d) Rapid industrialization and urbanization

(ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?
(a) Joint forest management
(b) Chipko movement
(c) Beej Bachao Andolan
(d) Demarcation of wildlife sanctuaries

(i) (c) Grazing and fuel wood collection
(ii) (d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries

Q4. Answer the following questions:
(i) What is biodiversity? Why biodiversity is important for human lives?
(ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain?

(i) Biodiversity is immensely rich in wildlife and cultivated species, diverse in form and function, but closely integrated in a system through multiple networks of interdependencies.
Biodiversity simply means the variety and variability of plants, animals and microorganisms found on the earth.
Biodiversity is important for human lives because human beings, along with the other living organisms form a complex web of ecological system in which we are only a part yet very much dependent on this system for our own existence.
(ii) Human activities and man’s insensitivity to the environment have been the major causes for the depletion of flora and fauna. Various activities carried out by man are as follows –
1. Deforestation for agricultural expansion
2. Degradation of forests by Shifting cultivation (Jhum), a type of ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
3. Large scale development projects.
4. Mining activities.
5. Habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, over-exploitation of forest products, environmental degradation, forest-fires are some other factors which have led to the decline of India’s biodiversity.
6. Over population as well as environmental destruction due to unequal access, inequitable consumption of resources and differential sharing of responsibilities for environmental well-being are also responsible for the depletion of flora and fauna.

Q5. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India.
(ii) Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.

(i) Conservation strategies are not new to India. For years our forests have been home to different traditional communities. These communities have a complex relationship with their environment, particular flora and fauna are integral to their identity, and they take a number of steps to protect the same.

The Mundas and the Santhal of Chota Nagpur region worship Mahua and Kadamba trees; the tribals of Orissa and Bihar worship the tamarind and mango trees. Similarly, the Bishnois of Rajasthan treat the blackbuck,nilgai and peacocks as an integral part of their community.. . Villagers around the Sariska Reserve have opposed mining activities in the region as these activities endanger wildlife. Villagers in the Alwar district of Rajasthan have banned hunting and lumbering activities in a 1200 hectare area they have marked as Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’. Such activities have helped to preserve patches of virgin forest land.

(ii) Good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife are plenty.
Nowadays, many non-governmental organisations are working towards creating public awareness for conserving depleting forest cover and vanishing wildlife.
Central and state governments in India have set up national parks and wildlife sanctuaries to protect forests and endangered species in wildlife.
Projects for the protection of specific animals like the tiger, one-horned rhinoceros, crocodiles etc have been announced.
Conservation projects today focus on biodiversity rather than on just a few components. Insects like butterflies, moths etc have been added to the list of protected species.
Various local communities, especially in tribal areas, who are dependent on forests for their living are now taking an active role by working along with government officials to conserve these habitats.
Community Movements like the Chipko movement in the Himalayas have played an active part in resisting deforestation and successfully carrying out community afforestation with indigenous species.