NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Minerals and Energy Resources
Q1. Multiple choice questions:
(i) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the strata of which of the following rocks?
(a) Sedimentary rocks
(b) Metamorphic rocks
(c) Igneous rocks
(d) None of these.

(ii) Which of the following mineral is formed by decomposition of rocks leaving a residual mass of weathered material?
(a) Coal
(b) Bauxite
(c) Gold
(d) Zinc.

(iii) Koderma in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?
(a) Bauxite
(b) Mica
(c) Iron ore
(d) Copper
(iv) Which one of the following is contained in the Monazite sand?
(a) Oil
(b) Uranium
(c) Thorium
(d) Coal

(i) (b) bauxite
(ii) (b) mica
(iii) (a) sedimentary rocks
(iv) (c) thorium

Q2. Answer the following questions;
(i) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words –
(a) Ferrous and Non-ferrous minerals
(b) Conventional and Non-conventional sources of energy.
(ii) What is a mineral?
(iii) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?
(iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?


(a) Minerals containing iron are called ferrous minerals, e.g., iron ore, manganese, nickel cobalt. Minerals which do not contain iron are called non-ferrous minerals, e.g., bauxite, lead and gold.
(b) Conventional sources of energy are generally exhaustible and polluting, e.g., firewood, coal and petroleum. Non conventional or renewable sources of energy are usually inexhaustible and non-polluting, e.g., solar, wind, tidal and atomic energy.

(ii) A mineral is a homogeneous, naturally occurring substance with a definable interior structure. It is found in various forms in nature. Minerals are formed by a combination of elements, and the mining of some minerals is very profitable.
(iii) In igneous and metamorphic rocks, molten/liquid and gaseous minerals are forced upwards through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They then cool and solidify as they rise. They are seen in cracks, faults and joints . The smaller occurrences are called veins while the larger are lodes.
(iv) Both agriculture and industry are strongly dependent upon mineral deposits. But the total volume of workable mineral deposits is just 1% of the earth’s crust.

It takes millions of years to create these mineral deposits that we are rapidly consuming. Since the geological processes are so slow the rates of replenishment are minimal as compared to the present rates of consumption. As a result mineral resources are finite and nonrenewable and we need to conserve them. Continued extraction of ores leads to increase in costs of extraction and a decrease in quality as well as quantity. Every effort has to be made to use our mineral resources in a planned sustainable manner and conserve them for the future.

Q3. Answer the following questions.
(i) Describe the distribution of coal in India.
(ii) Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?

1)In India coal deposits occur in rock series of two geological ages namely Gondwana coal deposits, which are about 200 million years old and tertiary deposits that are only about 55 million years old.

1.The major resources of Gondwana coal which are metallurgical coal are located in Damodar Valley (West Bengal, Jharkhand). Jharia, Ranigunj, and Bokaro are important coal fields. Besides, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valley also contain coal deposits.

2 Tertiary coal deposits are found in the North-Eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

(ii) Solar energy has a bright future in India because –
1. India being a tropical country receives sunlight in abundance throughout the year so there are enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy.
2. Solar plants can be easily established in rural and remote areas.
3. It will minimize the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes which in turn will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure for agriculture.