NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Resource and Development

Page 12 Q1:

Multiple choice questions:
(i) Which one of the following types of resources is iron ore?
a. Renewable
b. Biotic.
c. Flow
d. Non-renewable
(ii) Under which of the following type of resource can tidal energy be put?
a. Replenishable
b. Abiotic
c. Human-made.
d. Non-recyclable
(iii)Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in
a. Intense cultivation
b. Deforestation
c. Over irrigation
d. Overgrazing

(iv) In which one of the following states is the terrace cultivation practiced?
a. Punjab
b. Haryana
c. Plains of Uttar Pradesh
d. Uttaranchal
(v) In which one of the following states is the black soil found?
a. J & K
b. Gujarat
c. Rajasthan
d. Jharkhand

(i) (d) Non-renewable
(ii) (a) Replenishable
(iii) (c) Over irrigation
(iv) (d) Uttarakhand
(v) (b) Gujarat

Page 13:

Q.2: Answer the following questions in about 30 words:
(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the Eastern Coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
(iv) What are biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.

(i) The states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh have black soil. The crop which is mainly grown in this soil is cotton. This soil is also called ‘Regur’ or black cotton soil.
(ii) The river deltas of the eastern coast have alluvial soil.
Alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay.
The main features of alluvial soil are:
(a) These soils are very fertile and so ideal for cultivation.
(b) They contain adequate quantities of potash, phosphoric acid and lime good for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, and other crops.
(c) In drier areas these soils are more alkaline.
(iii) In hilly areas, soil erosion can be controlled by contour ploughing which is ploughing along contour-lines, using terrace farming techniques and using strips of grasses to check soil erosion by wind and water.(iv)
Biotic Resources: The resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are called Biotic Resources. Examples of biotic resources are animals, plants, human beings, fish, livestock etc.
Abiotic Resources: The resources which are composed of non-living things are called Abiotic Resources.
Examples of abiotic resources are, water, minerals, metals, wind, solar energy etc.

Q3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?

1) Land resources in India are primarily divided into agricultural land, forest land, pasture and grazing land, and waste land. Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas, and land used for non-agricultural purposes like housing, roads, industry etc.

According to recent data available the percentage of net sown area (NSA) in India is about 54% of the total reporting area (if, the other than current fallow lands is included). . 22.5% is covered by forests, and 3.45% is used for grazing. The rest is waste land, with traces of miscellaneous cultivation.
Improper use of forest land has led to land degradation and made conservation of forests difficult.
Human activities like deforestation,overgrazing, mining , quarrying etc have contributed to the slow growth rate of forests. Thus, land under forest has increased by only about 4% since 1960-61.
(ii) The following factors have been responsible for technical and economic development leading to over consumption of resources .
In colonial times, imperial powers used their technological and economic superiority to establish control over other countries and thereby gain access to the latter’s resources. One country’s resources were accessible to the citizens of its colonial ruler too, leading to increased consumption.
Technical progress also results in efficient machinery, increased production and greater consumption of resources.

Technological development and economic progress has led to populations increasing due to low mortality at all ages. With new developments in medicine and health care, fewer people die due to accidents, diseases, in childbirth etc. This too has contributed to higher consumption of resources.

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