Social Civics Democracy and Diversity CBSE Class 10 SAQ

Q.1.  Explain the Civil Rights Movement in the USA.  [CBSE 2014]
Ans. (i) Civil Rights Movement in the USA (1954-1968) refers to a set of events and reform movements aimed at abolishing legal racial discrimination against African-Americans.
(ii) Led by Martin Luther King Jr., this movement practised non-violent methods of civil disobedience against racially discriminatory laws and practices.
(iii) The movement inspired many nationalist to raise the issue of racial discrimination at international level. Inspired by the movement, Tommie Smith and John Carlos raised the issue of racial discrimination in the Mexican Olympics.

Q.2.. What was Black Power Movement ? How was it different from the Civil Rights Movement ?
Or
Who was the leader of the Civil Rights Movement in USA ? Explain the importance of this movement. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. The Black Power Movement was an anti-racist movement launched in Africa.
Differences:
(i) The Black Power Movement emerged in 1966 and lasted till 1975. Whereas Civil Rights Movement emerged in 1954 and lasted till 1968.
(ii) The Civil Rights Movement was a non-violent movement. Whereas the Black Power Movement was a militant anti-racist movement, advocating even violence if necessary to end racism in the US.

Q.3.Taking the examples at Carlos, Smith and Norman, explain how social differences divide similar people from one another but also unite very different people ?  [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Ans.(i) Similarity between Tommie Smith and John Carlos : Both Tommie Smith and John Carlos were African-Americans. They both were Blacks and were facing racial discrimination in the United States.
(ii) Similarity between Tommie Smith, John Carlos and Peter Norman : Peter Norman, an Australian and both Tommie Smith and John Carlos belonged to different nations but still they all were one, i.e., they all were athletes.
(iit) United on racial discrimination : All the
three athletes were united on the issue of racial discrimination though one of them belonged to white class.

Q.4.”We all have more than one identity and can belong to more than one social group.”Discuss the statement with suitable examples. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
Explain the statement ‘we have different identities in different contexts’. [CBSE 2011]
Ans.(i) Carlos and Smith were similar in one way, i.e., they both were African-Americans and thus different from Norman who was white. But they were also all similar in other ways – they were all athletes who stood against racial discrimination.
(ii) It is fairly common for people belonging to the same religion to feel that they do not belong to the same community, because their caste or sect is very different. For example, people of Northern Ireland and Netherlands are predominantly Christians but divided between Catholics and Protestants. –
(Hi) Rich and poor persons from the same caste and creed often do not keep close relations with each other for they feel they are very different. Thus, we all have more than one . identity and can belong to more than one social group. We have different identities in different contexts.

Q.5. How far do you agree with the statement that all social differences are not always an accident ? Why are most countries emerging as multi-cultural countries ?
Or
All kinds of social differences are not based on accident of birth. [CBSE 2014]
Ans. (i) Many of our differences are based on our choices. For example, some people are atheists (those who don’t believe in God) whereas other choose to follow a religion.
(ii) Many differences are based on the occupation we take up.
(iii) Some differences are also based on ideology. For example, in India there are many political parties based on different ideologies.

Q.6. “The outcome of politics of social divisions depends on how people perceive their identities.”Explain the statement with example. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. Three factors are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions. First of all, the outcome depends on how people perceive their identities. If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate. As long as people in Northern Ireland saw themselves as only Catholic or Protestant, their differences were difficult to reconcile. It is much easier if the people see that their identities are multiple and are complementary with the national identity. A majority of Belgians now feel that they are as much Belgian as they are Dutch or German-speaking. This helps them to stay together. This is how most people in our country see their identity : they think of themselves as Indian as well as belonging to a state or a language group or a social or religious community.

Q.7.‘Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions.’ Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Ans. •  When one social difference overlaps another difference, it is known as overlapping social differences.
• Overlapping social differences between Blacks and Whites became a social division in the United States. Overlapping social difference became the main factor for the Black Power Militant Movement.
• Even in India, Dalits face discrimination and injustice. These kinds of situations produce social divisions which are harmful for democracy and weaken the basic foundation of democracy.

Q.8. ‘Social divisions of one kind or another exist in most countries.’ Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2011, 2012]
Or
When does a social difference become a social division ? Explain any three situations. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. • Most of the countries of the world are heterogeneous or multi-cultural. India is a vast country with many religions and communities living side by side.
• Belgium, a small country is also a multi-cultural country.
• Even those countries such as Germany and Sweden, that were once highly homogeneous, are undergoing rapid change with the influx of people from other parts of the world. Migrants bring with them their own culture, and tend to form a different social community.

Q.9. ‘In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal, and can be healthy. ‘ Explain. [CBSE 2014]
Or
How is political expression of social divisions in democracy beneficial ? [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
Or
“Assertion of social diversities in a country need not be seen as a source of danger.”Explain. [CBSE 2010]
Ans. (i) This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances, and get the government to attend to these.
(ii) Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another out, and thus, reduces their intensity. This leads to the strengthening of a democracy
(iii) In certain case, countries like India tries to accomodate social division by providing political power to certain backward people.

Q.10. “History shows that democracy is the best way to fight for recognition and also to accommodate diversity.”Justify.
Ans. (i) India: India is a very diverse country. The real success of democracy in India is because our Parliament and government has tried to accommodate social diversities. Many changes have been brought in the Indian Constitution since independence.
(ii) Belgium: The experiment of Belgium also shows that democracy is the only way to accommodate differences. Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their Constitution four times so as to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country.
(iii) Sri Lanka: In case of Sri Lanka, the government failed to respond to needs of the people and tried to follow the principle of majoritarianism. The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict and lead to a Civil War.

Q.11. “Reaction of the government to the demands of different groups is a crucial factor in determining the outcome of social divisions”. Explain the statements.
Ans. (i) If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country. But if they try to suppress such a demand with force and in the name of national unity, this can lead to civil war or division of country, and that is what happened in Sri Lanka.
(ii) According to our Constitution, the use of English for official purposes was to stop in 1965 but when many non-Hindi states demanded the use of English to be continued the Union Government responded in a positive way avoiding any conflict.
(iii) In Belgium, the government responded as per the needs of the people and amended the Constitution several time to avoid any conflict in the society.

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