Social Sciences CBSE Class 10 The Age of Industrialisation LAQ

NCERT Solutions LAQ Q.l. In the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, the merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside.’ Give reasons.
Or
Explain any three major problems faced by the new European merchants in setting up their industries in towns before the Industrial Revolution. [CBSE 2008 (D) Sept. 2012]
Or
What is meant by proto-industrialisation ? Why was it successful in the countryside in England in the 17th century ?  [CBSE Sept. 2008. 2011. 2012]
Or
Throw light on production during the proto-industrialisation phase in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries with an example. [CBSF. Sept. 2010]
Ans.The earlier phase of industrialisation in which large scale production was carried out for international market not at factories but in decentralised units.
(i) Huge demand : The world trade expanded at a very fast rate during the 17th and the 18th centuries. The acquisition of colonies
was also responsible for the increase in demand. The town producers failed to produce the required quantity.
(ii) Powerful town producers :
• The town producers were very powerful,
• The producers could not expand the production a: will. This was because in the towns, urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful. These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people within the trade.
(iii) Monopoly rights : The rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products It was therefore difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns. So they turned to the countryside.
(iv) New economic situation in the countryside : Open fields were disappearing in the countryside and the commons were being enclosed. Cottagers and poor peasants who were earlier depended on common lands became jobless So when merchants came around and offered advances to produce, peasants households eagerly agreed.

Q.2. Why did the peasants agree to accept advances made by the merchants to produce goods for them in Europe during the 17th and the 18th centuries* ? Explain three reasons. [CBSE Comp. (D) 2008]
Or
How were new merchant groups in Europe able to spread their business in the countryside before the Industrial Revolution ? Explain.
Or
Briefly explain the method and system of production in the countryside in England.
[CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Disappearing open field system : In the countryside, the open field system was prevailing. i.e.. land was free and anyone could use it for production. But as the population increased, the open field system started disappearing. The rich landlords started enclosing the open fields.
(ii) Cottagers and poor peasants: They had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering the firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw. Now they had to look for alternative sources of income.
(iii) Small fields i As most of the land was acquired by the rich landlords, the poor had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all the members of the household. So when merchants came around, and offered advances to produce goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed.
(iv) Full utilisation of family labour resources : By working for the merchants, the poor peasants and the artisans could continue to remain in the countryside, and cultivate their small plots
(v) Income : Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.

Q.3. Mention any four features of the proto ¬industrial system. [CBSE Svpt. 2010]
Or
Explain the main features of proto ¬industrialisation. [CBSE 2010 (0)]
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What was proto-industrialisation ? Why did the poor peasants and artisans in the countryside begin to work for the merchants from the towns ? [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) Impact on cottagers and peasants : After the disappearing of open field system cottagers and poor peasants ‘who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering their firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw, had to now look for alternative sources of income. Many had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all members of the household. So when merchants cam around and offered advances to produce good; for them, peasant households eagerly agreed. By working for the merchants, they could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots. Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.
(ii) Closed relationship between countryside and towns : Within this system a close relationship developed between the town and the countryside. Merchants were based in towns but the work was done mostly in the countryside.
(iii) Role of merchants : The whole system of production was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories At each stage of production 20 to 25 workers were employed by each merchant.
(iv) Market : With the expansion of world trade and the acquistion of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing. So the Merchants were producing these goods for international market.
(v) Not factories : The goods were no: produced in factories by the cotta cottagers and Hie peasants and their families.

Q.4. Explain any five causes of industrial revolution in England. [CBSE 2013.2014]
Ans. (i) Growing International Market: In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.
(ii) Increase in demand: With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different pans of the world, the demand for goods began growing. It was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories.
(iii) Proto-industrial System: The expansion o: market and demand lead to proto-industrial growth which provided a base to Industrial Revolution.
(iv) New Inventions: A series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling’1 They enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more, and they made possible the production or stronger threads and yarn. Then Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill.
(v) Availability of Capital : The vast amount of capital which England had accumulated out of profits of her growing trade enabled her to make large expenditure on machinery and buildings. This led to new technological developments.
(vi) Availability of Raw Material : The availability of coal and iron ores in large quantities greatly helped the growth of numerous industries in England.

Q.5. Why the production of cotton industry boomed in the late 19th century ?
Or
How had a series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficiency of each step of the production process in cotton textile industry ? Explain. [CBSE 2008]
Ans. (i) New inventions : A series of inventions in the eighteenth century simplified each step of the production process (carding, twisting, spinning, and rolling).
(ii) Increase in output : The new inventions helped in increasing the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more. (iii) Improvement in Quality : Along ‘with quantity, there was improvement in quality also The new invention made possible the production of stronger threads and yam.
(iv) Creation of cotton mill : It was Richard .Arkwright who created the cotton mill. Mow. the costly new machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mill Within the mill, all the processes were brought together under one roof and management.
(v) All under single roof : This allowed a more careful supervision over the production process, a watch over quality and the regulation of labour, all of which had been difficult to do so when production was in the countryside.

Q.6. Why did the network of export trade in textiles controlled by the Indian merchants break down by the 1750s ? Mention any two effects of such a breakdown ? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) European trading companies gained power. First, they acquired trading concessions from local rulers, then monopolised rights to trade.
(ii)This resulted in the decline of the old ports of Surat and Hoogly.
(iii)Exports from the old ports fell dramatically and local bankers slowly went bankrupt.
Impacts :
(a) Weavers devoted entire time to weaving. They were forced to accept the prices fixed by the company.
(b) There were reports of dashes between weavers and gomasthas. The new gomasthas were outsiders. They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply. The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers
(c) Weavers deserted villages and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relations.

Q.7. Why were most of the producers reluctant to use the new technology ? Explain by giving examples.
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Why did industrialists not want to get rid of hand labour once machines were introduced? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
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“The modem industrialisation could not marginalise the traditional industries in England”. Justify the statement with any four suitable arguments. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
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Why did the industrialists of Europe prefer hand labour over machines during the 19’1, century ? Explain any five reasons. [CBSE Sept. 2012. 2013]
Ans. (i) Expensive new technology: New technologies and machines were expensive, so the pioducers and the industrialists were cautious about using them.
(ii) Costlier repair : The machines often
broke down and the repair was costly.
(iii) Less effective : They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.
(iv) Availability of cheap workers : Poor peasants and migrants moved to cities in large numbers in search of jobs. So the supply of workers was more than the demand. Therefore, workers were available at low wages.
(v) Uniform machine-made goods: A range of products could be produced only with hand labour. Machines were oriented to producing uniforms, standardised goods for a mass market. But the demand in the market was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes.
In the mid-nineteenth century. Britain, for instance. 500 varieties of hammers were produced, and 15 kinds of axes. These required human skill, not mechanical technology.

Q.8. Explain the major features of the industrialisation process of Europe in the 19th century. [CBSE Compt. 2008 (O)]  
Ans. (i) Major industries : Cotton and metal industries were the most dynamic industries in Britain. Cotton was the leading sector i:i the first phase of industrialisation up to the l$40s. but the iron and steel industry led the way after 1840. With the expansion of railways in England from the l840s and in the colonies from the l860s. the demand tor iron and steel increased rapidly. By 1873. Britain was exporting iron and steel worth about 577 million, double the value of its cotton export.
(ii) Domination of traditional industry : The modem machinery and industries could not easily displace traditional industries. Even at the end of the nineteenth century, less than 20 per cent of the total workforce was employed in technologically advanced industrial sectors. Textile was a dynamic sector, but a large portion of the output was produced not within factories, but outside, within the domestic units.
(iii) Base for growth : The pace of change in the ‘traditional’ industries was not set by steam powered cotton or metal industries. They were the ordinary and small innovations which built up the basis o! growth in many non-mechanised sectors such as food processing, building, pottery, glass work, tanning, furniture making and production of implementing sectors.
(iv) New inventions : A series of inventions the eighteenth century increased the efficacy, of each step of the production process (carding, musing and spinning end rolling). They enhanced the output pet worker, enabling each worker to produce more, and they made possible the production of stronger threads and yam. Then Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill.
(v) Slow pace : Though technological inventions were stung place but their pace was very slow. They did not spread dramatically across the industrial landscape New technologies and machines were expensive, so the producers and the industrialists were cautious about using them The machines often broke down, and the repair was costly. They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.

Q.9.‘Historians now have come to increasingly recognise that the typical worker in the mid- 19th century was, not a machine operator, but the traditional craftsperson and a labourer.’ Justify by giving examples. [CBSE 2009 ID)]
Or
Why do historians agree that the typical worker in the mid-nineteenth century was not a machine operator but the traditional craftsperson and labourer ? [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2013]
Ans: (i) Slow pace of technology of new machines : Though Technological inventions were taking place, bur their pace was very slow They did not spread dramatically across The industrial landscape.
(ii) Expensive : New technologies and machines were expensive, so the producers and the industrialists were cautious about using them. The machines often broke down and the repair was costly. They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.
(iii) Limited use of machines : James Wat improved the seam engine produced by Newcomen, and patented the new engine in 178I. His industrialist friend Mathew Boultcn manufactured the new model. But they could no: find sufficient buyers. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, there were approximately 321 steam engines, all over England. Of these. 😯 were in cotton industries. 9 in wool industries, and the rest in mining, canal works and iron works. No other industry was using steam engine even in the late 19th century. So even the most powerful new- technology that enhanced the productivity of labour manifold was slow to be accepted by the industrialists.

Q.10. ‘The process of industrialisation brought with it miseries for the newly emerged class of industrial workers.’ Explain.  [CBSE 2014]
Or
Explain the miserable conditions of industrial workers in Britain during the nineteenth century. [CBSE 2009 lP]
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How did the abundance of labour in the market affect the lives of the workers in Britain during the nineteenth century ? Explain with examples. [CBSE 2008 (O) Compt.]
Or
Describe the lifestyle of the British workers of the nineteenth century. [CBSE 2010 IO). 2014]
Or
Explain how the condition of the workers steadily declined in the early twentieth century Europe. [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2011]
Ans. (i) More workers than the demand : There was an abundance of workers in the market than the demand This had an adverse impact on the lives of the workers. Due to the shortage of work, most of the workers failed to get jobs So they offered their services at lower wages.
(ii) Seasonality of work : Seasonality of work any industries meant prolonged periods without work. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again. Some returned to the countryside after the winter, when the demand for labour in the rural areas opened up in places. But most looked for odd jobs, which till the mid-nineteenth century were difficult to find.
(iii) Low real wages : Though the wages increased somewhat in the early 19th century, but the increase was nullified by increase in prices. During the Napoleonic ware, the red wages fell significantly.
(iv) Poverty and unemployment : At the best of times, till the mid-nineteenth century, about 10 per cent of the urban population was extremely poor The unemployment rate was also very high.
(v) Housing problem : Factory or workshop owners did not house live migrant workers. Many job seekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or night in shelters.

Q.11. Mention the major features of Indian textiles before the age of machine industries.
Ans. (i) The Age of Indian Textiles : Historically, India was one of the leading producer; of cotton textile. Silk and cotton products of India dominated the international market. India was known for its finer varieties of cotton. The Armenian and Persian merchants took these goods from Punjab to Afghanistan. Persia and Central Asia. Though most of the trade was carried through land routes, but the sea route was and Hoogly were the most important pore; which were used for trade.
(ii) A complex and complete market i Before the arrival of the outsiders, the Dade was handled by a variety of Indian merchants and bankers. The whole process of Dade basically involved three steps :
• Financing production
• Carrying or transporting goods
• Supplying goods to the exporters
Supply merchant; linked the port towns to the inland regions. They gave advances to weavers, procured the woven cloth from weaving village;, and carried the supply to the ports At the port, the big shippers and export merchants had brokers, who negotiated the price. and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.

Q.12 ‘The port of Surat and Hoogly declined by the end of the ISth century.’ Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Ans. (i) Most of the European companies had huge resources, so it was very difficult for the Indian merchants and traders to face the competition.
(ii) The European companies were gaining power by securing a variety of concessions from the local courts
(iii) Some of the companies got the monopoly rights to Dade.
All this resulted in the decline of the old ports of Surat and Hoogly through which local merchants had operand. Exports from these ports fell dramatically, the credit that had financed the earlier trade began drying up. and the local bankers slowly went bankrupt.
(iv)In the last years of the seventeenth century, the gross value of -race that passed through Sura: had been t 16 million. By the 1740s. it had slumped to 3 million rupees.
(v) With the passage of time. Surat and Hoogly decayed. Bombay (Mumbai), and Calcutta (Kolkata) grew.

Q-13. What steps were taken by the East India Company to contiol the market of cotton and silk goods ? [CBSE 2009 (D)]
Or
The establishment of political power by the East India Company resulted in ruination of the Indian weavers. Support the statement with suitable examples.  [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) Monopoly right : Once the East India Company established political power, it asserted a monopoly right to trade
(ii) New system : After establishing monopoly over trade :t proceeded to develop a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. This it did through a series of steps.
(iii) Appointing Gomasthas : The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the doth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weavers. It appointed a paid secant called the Gomostha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
(iv) System of advances : To have a direct control over the weavers, the company- started the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those, who took loans had to hand over the doth they produced to the Gomastha. They could not take it to any other trader.
(v) Use of power : The places where the weaver refused to cooperate the Company used its police. At many places weaver were often beaten and flogged for delays in supply.

Q-14. Why the system of advances proved harmful for the weavers ?
Ans. (i) No chance of bargaining : The weavers lost any chance of bargaining.
(ii) Leasing of land : Most of the weavers had to lease out the land and devote all their time to weaving. Weaving in fact, came to absorb the labour of the entire family.
(iii) Dependency for food on others: Most of the weavers after losing their land became dependent on others tor the food supplies.
(iv) Clashes with Gomasthas : The new Gomaszhcs were outsiders, with no long term social link with the village. So they acted arrogantly, marched into villages with the police, and punished weavers for delay in supply.
So. there were reports of clashes between weavers and Gomasthas.

Q.15. ‘By the beginning of the 19th century, there was a long decline of textile exports from India.’ Explain by giving reasons. [CBSE 2008]
Or
Explain three reasons for the decline of Indian textile industry by the end of 19th century. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) Development of cotton industries in England : As cotton industries developed in England, industrial group; began worrying about imports from other countries. They pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing any competition from outside.
(ii) Growth of mills and falling demand :
With growing mill; and falling home demand British industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian markets as well.
(iii) Two edge policy : To sell its manufactures in India East India Company followed a two edged policy i.e. no taxes on import; but high taxes on exports.
(iv) Manchester goods in India : Cotton weavers and small producer; in India thus faced two problems at the same time, their export market collapsed and the local market shrank, being glutted with Manchester imports. Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could no: easily compete with them.
(v) Shortage of raw material : By the 1860;, weavers faced a new problem. They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality When the American Civil War broke out and cotton supplies from the US were cut off. Britain turned to India. .As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this, situation weaving could not pay.

Q.16. Who were the entrepreneurs or business groups in India during the 19th century ?
Ans. (i) Dwarakanath Tagore : He was a leading trader of 3engal. Dwarakanath Tagore accumulated his wealth through China trade, before he turned to industrial investment. He set up six joint stock companies in the 1830s and 40s. Though his enterprises sank in the 19th century, yet he showed way to many of the China traders, who later became successful industrialists.
(ii) Dinshaw Petit : He was a Parsi entrepreneur, and was the founder of the first textile mill in India.
(iii) Jamsetji Nusseruanji Tata : He is generally accepted as the “Father of Indian industry.” He had accumulated his wealth partly from exports to China and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
(iv) Seth Hukumchand : Seth Hukumchand was a Marwari businessman, who set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta (Kolkata) in 1917.
(v) Birlas : The Birias belonged to the Marwari group, who had established a business in cotton dealership.

Q.17. By the first decade of the 20th century, a series of changes affected the pattern of industrialisation in India. Explain.  [CBSE 2008. Sept. 2013]
Ans. (i) Swadeshi and Boycott Movements : The launching of Swadeshi and Boycott Movements after the Partition of Bengal provided impetus to indian industries. There was an increase in the demand of Indian goods, especially of clothes.
(ii) Industrial groups : Industrial groups had also organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff, the protection, and grant other concessions.
(iii) Decline of exports to China : From 1906. moreover, the export of Indian yarn to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills had flooded the Chinese markets.
(iv) First World War : For explanation see Q.No. 19 Long Answer Type Questions. 0.18. What was the condition of Indian industries before the. First World War ?

Q.18 How did it change after the First World War ? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. Before the First World War :
i) The early cotton mills in India produced coarse cotton yam rather than fabric. Only imported yam was of the superior variety, (ii) By the first decade of the 20th century, a series of changes affected the pattern of industrialisation. Industrialists in India began shifting from yam to cloth production.
(iii) Till the First World War. industrial growth was slow. The war created a dramatically new situation.
After the First World War :
(i) With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army. Manchester imports into India declined. Suddenly. Indian mills had a vast home marker to supply.
(ii) As the war prolonged. Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs e.g.. jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents, leather boots, etc.
(iii) New factories were set up and old one; ran multiple shifts Over the war years industrial production boomed.
(iv) After the war. local industrialists gradually consolidated their position. Substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

0.19. Explain the impact of the First World War on the Indian industries. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
Describe the peculiarities of Indian industrial growth during the First World War. [ICBSE 2010(0)]
Or
How did the World War prove to be a boon to the Indian Industries ? Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Ans. (i) Decline of Manchester : With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army. Manchester imports into India declined.
(ii) Increase in demand : With the decline of imports suddenly. Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.
(iii) Demand from army : As the War prolonged. Indian factories were called upon to supply war need;i.e.. jute bags, doth for the army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles, and a host of other items.
(iv) New factories : New factories were set up. and old ones ran multiple shifts. Many new workers were employed, and everyone was made to work for longer hours. Over the war years, industrial production boomed.
(v) Downfall of British industry and boon for home industry : After the war Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market. Unable to modernise and compete with the US. Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

Q.20. Explain the methods used by producers to expand their markets in the 19th century. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Or
How did the British manufacturers attempt to take over the Indian market with the help of advertisements ? Explain with three examples. [CBSE 200S (D). 2014]
Or
“Consumers are created through advertisement.” Support the statement with three suitable examples. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Ans. (i) Advertisement : Advertisements through newspapers, magazines, hoarding; were the most important method used by the producers to expand the market. It played a major role in expanding the markets, and shaping a new consumer culture. Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary.
(ii) Labelling : Labelling was another method used by the producers to expand their market. When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they cut labels on the cloth bundles.
When buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold on the labels, they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth.
But labels did not only carry words and texts. They also carried images, and were very often beautifully illustrated.
(iii) Calendars : By the nineteenth century, manufacturers were printing calendars to popularise their products. Unlike newspapers • and magazines, calendars were used even by people, who could not read. They were hung in tea shops and in poor people’s homes just as much as in offices and middle- class apartments. Those, who hung the calendars had to see the advertisements, day after day, through the year. Even in these calendars, images of gods and goddesses were used to attract the consumers.
(iv) Images of important personages : Along with the images of gods, figures of important personages, of emperors and nawabs were also used. The message very often seemed to say ; if you respect the royal figure, then respect this product; when the product was being used by kings, or produced under royal command, its quality could not be questioned.
(v) Advertisement by Indian producers :
Indian manufacturers were also using the same tactics. When Indian manufacturers advertised, the nationalist message was clear and loud. If you care for the nation, then buy products that Indians produce. Finally, advertisements became a vehicle of the nationalist message of Swadeshi.

Q.21. ‘Industrialisation was a mixed blessing.’ Explain by giving examples. [CBSE 2014]
Ans. (i) Cheap goods : The machine made goods were cheap and fine. So people of colonies could purchase cheap, fine and a variety of goods.
(ii) New entrepreneurs : The process of industrialisation provided an opportunity to Indian entrepreneurs to factories. Though they were junior players, but they earned a good amount.
(iii) Growth of industrial sector : Before the arrival of outsiders, most of the people were involved in agriculture, but the process of industrialisation provided them opportunity to work in other fields.
Life of the workers :
The process of industrialisation brought with it miseries for the newly emerged class of industrial workers.
(i) More workers than the demand : There was an abundance of workers in the market than the demand This had an adverse impact on the lives of the workers. Due to the shortage of work, most of the workers failed to get jobs So they offered their services at lower wages.
(ii) Seasonality of work : Seasonality of work any industries meant prolonged periods without work. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again. Some returned to the countryside after the winter, when the demand for labour in the rural areas opened up in places. But most looked for odd jobs, which till the mid-nineteenth century were difficult to find.
(iii) Low real wages : Though the wages increased somewhat in the early 19th century, but the increase was nullified by increase in prices. During the Napoleonic ware, the red wages fell significantly.
(iv) Poverty and unemployment : At the best of times, till the mid-nineteenth century, about 10 per cent of the urban population was extremely poor The unemployment rate was also very high.
(v) Housing problem : Factory or workshop owners did not house live migrant workers. Many job seekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or night in shelters.
Impact on weavers :
To have a direct control over the weavers, the company started the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material, for their production. Those who took loans had to handover the cloth they produced to the Gomastha. They could not take it to any other trader.
The system of advances proved very harmful for the weavers.
(i) The weavers lost any chance of bargaining.
(ii) Most of the weavers had to lease out the land, and devote all their time to weaving. Weaving in fact, came to absorb the labour of the entire family.
(iii) Impact on merchants and traders : The coming of machine-made clothes to India had some serious implications on the merchants on the Indian economy :
1. Collapse In the export market: Before the industrialisation, the Indian traders were exporting their products to different countries of the world. But with the entry of machine-made cloth, they lost their world market.
2. Shrinking of the local market : The machine-made clothes were finer and cheaper. So the producers failed to compete with them. So along with the world market, they started losing the home market also.

Q.22. Explain the role of Indian merchants and bankers in the network of export trade.
Or
What role did the Indian merchants play in the growth of textile industries before 1750 ? Explain any three points. [CBSE 2011]
Ans. (i) From the late eighteenth century, the British in India began exporting opium to China and took tea from China to England (it) Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments.
(iii) Having earned through trade, some of these businessmen had visions of developing industrial enterprises in India
(iv) Some merchants from Madras traded Burma while others had links with the Muddle East and East Africa. There were yet other commercial groups, but they were not directly involved in external trade. They operated within India, carving goods from one place to another, banking money, transferring funds between cities, and financing traders.

Q.23. Give reasons why the handloom weavers in India survived the onslaught of the machine made textiles of Manchester ?  [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
How did small scale industries survive in India despite of Industrialisation ?  [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Many started adopting new technology without excessively pushing up costs. By the second decade of the 20th century most of the weavers were using looms with a fly shuttle.
(ii) The new technology increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand.
(iii)Some weavers who wove fine varieties managed to survive as the machine made products failed to attract rich and nobles. There were many weavers who were producing specialised products likeBansari or Baluchari saris, lungis. and handkerchiefs. (iv)Swadeshi movement launched by Indian nationalist provided a boost to handloom demand.

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