SST Economics CBSE Class 10 Sectors of Indian Economy VBQ

Q.1. What are the disadvantages of working in an unorganised sector ? Suggest any two ways to protect the workers working in an unorganised sector.
Why is working in an unorganized sector not considered secure ? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) The unorganised sector is characterised by small and scattered units which are largely outside the -control of the government.
(ii) Workers working in an unorganised sector get less wages.
(iii) There is a no provision for overtime, paid leave, holidays, leave due to sickness, etc.
(iv) Employment is subject to high degree of insecurity.
(v) A large number of people doing small jobs such as selling on the street or doing repair work comes under the unorganised sector.
Suggestions :
(i) Expanding the base of organised sector.
(ii) Spread of Education.

Q.2. Explain the role of public sector. Suggest any two ways to improve the working of public sector or government.  [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Why is public sector required to provide certain things at reasonable cost ?  [CBSE 2013]
Identify any five activities where the government must spend for the welfare of the people and why. [CBSE 2012]
How far is it correct to say that several services which cannot be provided by private sector, can be provided by the public sector ? Explain. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) There are several things needed by the society as a whole like sanitation system, safe drinking water, education, etc. which the private sector will not provide at reasonable cost.
(ii) There are some activities, which the government has to support. The private sector may not continue their production or business unless government encourages it. For example, selling electricity at the cost of generation may push up the costs of production of industries.’Many units, especially small-scale units, might have to shut down. Government here steps in by producing and supplying electricity at rates which these industries can afford. Government has to bear part of the cost.
(iii) Similarly, the government in India buys wheat and rice from farmers at a ‘fair price.’ This it stores in its godowns and sells at a lower price to consumers through ration shops. The government has to bear some of the cost. In this way, the government supports both farmers and consumers.
(iv) Similarly, we know that nearly half of India’s children are malnourished and a quarter of them are critically ill. The infant mortality rate of Odisha (87) or Madhya Pradesh (85) is higher than that of the poorest regions of the world such as the African countries. Government also needs to pay attention to aspects of human development such as availability of safe drinking water, housing facilities for the poor and food and nutrition. It is also the duty of the government to take care of the poorest and most ignored regions of the country through increased spending in such areas. Improvement of working of government :
(i) Citizens should actively participate in the election procedure.
(ii) People should use RTI whenever not satisfied with any government department.

Q-3. Explain the interdependence of all the three economic sectors giving examples from transportation system. [CBSE 2013]
How are the three sectors of economy interdependent ? Explain with five suitable examples. [CBSE 2012]
‘Economic activities, though grouped into three different categories, are highly interdependent.’ Discuss. [CBSE 2010]
Ans. (i) When we exploit natural resources, it is an activity of the primary sector e.g., agriculture, mining, forestry.
(ii) The natural resources are changed into other forms through the process of manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing sector uses natural products as its raw materials.
(iii) All services, that enable us to pursue primary and secondary activities are listed as tertiary activities. For example, transport, education, medical services.
(iv) Primary and secondary activities cannot produce a good unless they are aided by the tertiary sector.
(v) Service sector does not produce a good. For example, the internet cafe, ATM booth, call centers are the services required for manufacturing industries etc. Railways, roads are needed to assist agricultural production.

Q.4. Why is agriculture an activity of unorganised sector in India ? Explain.  [CBSE 2012]
Agriculture is an activity of unorganized sector in India. Do you agree with this statement ? Justify your answer with suitable examples. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) There is no fixed number of working hours. The labourers have to work normally for 10-12 hours without paid overtime.
(ii) Agricultural labourers get no other allowances apart from daily wages.
(iii) Agricultural labourers have no job security.
(iv) Government rules and regulations to protect the labourers are not followed.
(v) They are often exploited and not paid a fair wage.

Q.5. “Income and employment will increase if the farmers are provided irrigation and marketing facilities”. Justify the statement. ‘
Ans. (i) If a new dam is constructed and canals are
dug to irrigate farms. This could lead to a .
lot of employment generation within the agricultural sector itself reducing the problem of underemployment.
(ii) With assured means of irrigation production will increase.
(iii) Farmers would like to sell the surplus in the market.
(iv) For this they may be required to transport their products to a nearby town. If the government invests some money in transportation and storage of crops, or makes for better rural roads this activity can provide productive employment to not just farmers but also others such as those in services like transport or trade.