CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 Biotechnology

Course Structure

Units   Topics   Marks  
Unit – I Biotechnology: An overview 5
Unit – II Molecules of Life 20
Unit – III Genes & Genomes 20
Unit – IV Cells and Organisms 25
Practicals 30

Unit-I: Biotechnology: An overview

Chapter 1: Introduction to Biotechnology

Historical Perspectives;  Production Strategies in Biotechnology;  Quality Control;  Product Safety;  Good Manufacturing Practices; Good Laboratory Practices;  Intellectual Property;  Public Perception;  Global market;  Biotechnology in India and Global Trends

Unit-II: Molecules of Life

Chapter 1: Biomolecules: Building Blocks

Building Blocks of Carbohydrates – Sugars and Their Derivatives;  Building Blocks of Proteins – Amino Acids;  Building Blocks of Lipids – Simple Fatty Acids, Sphingosine, Glycerol and Cholesterol;  Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids – Nucleotides;  Biochemical Transformations

Chapter 2: Macromolecules:  Structure & Function

Carbohydrates – The Energy Givers;  Proteins – The Performers;  Enzymes – The Catalysts;  Lipids and Biomembranes – The Barriers;  Nucleic Acids – The Managers

Unit III:  Genes & Genomes

Chapter 1:  Gene Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Components;  Tissues and Organs;  Stem cells;  Biodiversity;  Organization of Life

Chapter 2:  Genomes Organization & Function

Cell Division;  Cell Cycle;  Cell Communication;  Movement;  Nutrition;  Gaseous Exchanges;  Internal Transport;  Maintaining the Internal Enviornment;  Reproduction;  In vitro Fertilization;  Animal and Plant Development;  Immune Response in Animals;  Programmed Cell Death;  Defense Mechanisms in Plants

Unit IV:  Cells and Organisms

Chapter 1:  Cells: The Basic Unit of Life

Historical Perspective;  Multiple Alleles;  Linkage and Crossing Over;  Genetic Mapping;  Gene Interaction;  Sex-Linked Inheritance;  Extranuclear Inheritance;  Quantitative Inheritance;  Genes at Population Level;  Discovery of DNA as Genetic Material;  Mutations;  DNA Repair;  Genetic Disorders

Chapter 2:  Organisms: Structure & Dynamics

Genome Organization;  DNA Replication;  Fine Structure of Genes;  From Gene to Protein;  Transcription – The Basic Process;  Genetic Code;  Translation;  Regulation of Gene Expression


  1. Preparation of buffers and pH determination
  2. Sterlization techniques
  3. Preparation of bacterial growth medium
  4. Isolation of bacteria from curd and staining of bacteria
  5. Determination of bacterial growth curve
  6. Study of various stages of mitosis and calculation of mitotic index
  7. Preparation of karyotyping
  8. Cell counting
  9. Isolation of genomic DNA
  10. Detection of DNA by gel electrophoresis
  11. Isolation of milk protein (Casein)
  12. Estimation of protein by biuret method
  13. Assaying the enzyme acid phosphate

NCERT Solutions