CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Economics

Course Structure for Class XII Economics (2017-18)

  Units Marks
Part A Introductory Microeconomics
Introduction 8
Consumer’s Equilibrium and Demand 32
Producer Behaviour and Supply 32
Forms of Market and Price Determination under perfect competition with simple applications 28
Total 100
Part B Introductory Macroeconomics
National Income and Related Aggregates 28
Money and Banking 15
Determination of Income and Employment 27
Government Budget and the Economy 15
Balance of Payments 15
Total 100
Part C Project work 20

Part A: Introductory Microeconomics

Unit 1: Introduction

Meaning of microeconomics and macroeconomics;  positive and normative economics.

What is an economy? Central problems of an economy : what, how and for whom to produce; concepts  of production possibility frontier and opportunity cost.

Unit 2: Consumer Equilibrium and Demand

Consumer’s equilibrium – meaning of utility, marginal utility, law of diminishing marginal utility, conditions  of consumer’s equilibrium using marginal utility analysis.

Indifference curve analysis of consumer’s equilibrium-the consumer’s budget (budget set and budget  line), preferences of the consumer (indifference curve, indifference map) and conditions of consumer’s  equilibrium.

Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve and its slope, movement  along and shifts in the demand curve; price elasticity of demand – factors affecting price elasticity of  demand; measurement of price elasticity of demand – (a) percentage-change method and (b) geometric  method (linear demand curve); relationship between price elasticity of demand and total expenditure.

Unit 3: Producer Behaviour and Supply

Meaning of Production function – Short-Run and Long-Run

Total Product, Average Product and Marginal Product.

Returns to a Factor.

Cost and Revenue: Short run costs – total cost, total fixed cost, total variable cost; Average cost;  Average fixed cost,  average variable cost and marginal cost-meaning and their relationship.

Revenue – total, average and marginal revenue –  meaning and their relationship.

Producer’s equilibrium-meaning and its conditions in terms of marginal revenue-marginal cost. Supply, market supply, determinants of supply, supply schedule, supply curve and its slope, movements along and  shifts in supply curve, price elasticity of supply; measurement of price elasticity of supply –percentage change method.

Unit 4: Forms of Market and Price Determination under Perfect Competition with simple applications.

Perfect competition – Features; Determination of market equilibrium and effects of shifts in demand  and supply.

Other Market Forms – monopoly, monopolistic competition, oligopoly – their meaning and features.

Simple Applications of Demand and Supply: Price ceiling, price floor.

Part B: Introductory Macroeconomics

Unit 5: National Income and related aggregates

Some basic concepts: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and  flows; gross investment and depreciation.

Circular flow of income; Methods of calculating National Income – Value Added or Product method,  Expenditure method, Income method.

Aggregates related to National Income:  Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross and Net Domestic Product  (GDP and NDP) – at market price, at factor cost; National Disposable Income (gross and net),  Private Income, Personal Income and Personal Disposable Income; Real and Nominal GDP.

GDP and Welfare

Unit 6: Money and Banking

Money – meaning and supply of money – Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.

Money creation by the commercial banking system.

Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker’s Bank, Controller of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.

Unit 7: Determination of Income and Employment

Aggregate demand and its components.  Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).

Short–run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism.

Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.

Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them – change in government  spending,  taxes and money  supply.

Unit 8: Government Budget and the Economy

Government budget – meaning, objectives and components.

Classification of receipts – revenue receipts and capital receipts; classification of expenditure – revenue  expenditure and capital expenditure.

Measures of government deficit – revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning.

Unit 9: Balance of Payments

Balance of payments account – meaning and components; balance of payments deficit-meaning.

Foreign exchange rate – meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.

Determination of exchange rate in a free market.

Prescribed Books

  1. Statistics for Economics, Class XI, NCERT
  2. Indian Economic Development, Class XI, NCERT
  3. Introductory Micro Economics, Class XII, NCERT
  4. Macro Economics, Class XII, NCERT
  5. Supplementary Reading Material in Economics, Class XII, CBSE

Note: The above publications are also available ¡n Hindi Medium.

NCERT Solutions