NCERT Exemplar Problems Class 11 Mathematics Chapter 2 Relations and Functions  

NCERT Exemplar Solutions MathsClass 11 MathsMaths Sample Papers

Short Answer Type Questions
Q1. If A = {-1, 2, 3 } and B = {1, 3}, then determine
(i) AxB (ii) BxC (c) BxB (iv) AxA
Sol:  
We have A = {-1,2,3} and B = {1,3}
(i) A x B = {(-1, 1), (-1, 3), (2, 1), (2, 3), (3,1), (3, 3)}
(ii) BxA = {( 1, -1), (1, 2), (1,3), (3,-1), (3,2), (3, 3)}
(iii) BxB= {(1,1), (1,3), (3,1), (3, 3)}
(iv) A xA = {(-1, -1), (-1, 2), (-1, 3), (2, -1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, -1), (3, 2), (3,3)}

Q2. If P = {x : x < 3, x e N}, Q= {x : x≤2,x ∈ W}. Find (P∪ Q) x (P∩ Q), where W is the set of whole numbers.
Sol: We have, P={x: x<3,x ∈ N} = {1,2}
And Q = {x :x≤ 2,x∈ W] = {0,1,2}
P∪Q= {0, 1,2} and P ∩ Q= {1,2}
(P ∪ Q)  x (P ∩ Q) = {0,1, 2} x {1,2}
= {(0,1), (0, 2), (1,1), (1,2), (2,1), (2, 2)}

Q3. lfA={x:x∈ W,x < 2}, 5 = {x : x∈N, 1 <.x < 5}, C= {3, 5}. Find
(i) Ax(B∩Q) (ii) Ax(B∪C)
Sol: We have, A = {x :x∈ W,x< 2} = {0, 1};
B  = {x : x ∈ N, 1 <x< 5} = {2, 3,4}; and C= {3, 5}

(i) B∩ C = {3}
A x (B ∩ C) = {0, 1} x {3} = {(0, 3), (1, 3)}

(ii) (B ∪ C) ={2,3,4, 5}
A x (B ∪ C) = {0, 1} x {2, 3,4, 5}
= {(0,2), (0,3), (0,4), (0,5), (1,2), (1,3), (1,4), (1, 5)}

Q4. In each of the following cases, find a and b.  (2a + b, a – b) = (8, 3) (ii) {a/4, a – 2b) = (0, 6 + b)
Sol: (i) We have, (2a + b,a-b) = (8,3)
=> 2a + b = 8 and a – b = 3
On solving, we get a = 11/3 and b = 2/3

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Q5. Given A = {1,2,3,4, 5}, S= {(x,y) :x∈ A,y∈ A}.Find the ordered pairs which satisfy the conditions given below
x+y = 5 (ii) x+y<5 (iii) x+y>8
Sol: We have, A = {1,2, 3,4, 5}, S= {(x,y) : x ∈ A,y∈ A}
(i) The set of ordered pairs satisfying x + y= 5 is {(1,4), (2,3), (3,2), (4,1)}
(ii) The set of ordered pairs satisfying x+y < 5 is {(1,1), (1,2), (1,3), (2, 1), (2,2), (3,1)}
(iii) The set of ordered pairs satisfying x +y > 8 is {(4, 5), (5,4), (5, 5)}.

Q6. Given R = {(x,y) : x,y ∈ W, x2 + y2 = 25}. Find the domain and range of R
Sol: We have, R = {(x,y):x,y∈ W, x2 + y2 = 25}
= {(0,5), (3,4), (4, 3), (5,0)}
Domain of R = Set of first element of ordered pairs in R = {0,3,4, 5}
Range of R = Set of second element of ordered pairs in R = {5,4, 3, 0}

Q7. If R1 = {(x, y)| y = 2x + 7, where x∈ R and -5 ≤ x ≤ 5} is a relation. Then find the domain and range of R1.
Sol: We have, R1 = {(x, y)|y = 2x + 7, where x∈ R and -5 ≤x ≤ 5}
Domain of R1 = {-5 ≤ x ≤ 5, x ∈ R} = [-5, 5]
x ∈ [-5, 5]
=> 2x ∈ [-10,10]
=>2x + 7∈ [-3, 17]
Range is [-3, 17]

Q8. If R2 = {(x, y) | x and y are integers and x2 +y2 = 64} is a relation. Then find R2
Sol:
We have, R2 = {(x, y) |  x and y are integers and x2 + y2 – 64}
Clearly, x2 = 0 and y2 = 64 or x2 = 64 andy2 = 0
x = 0 and y = ±8
or x = ±8 and y = 0
R2 = {(0, 8), (0, -8), (8,0), (-8,0)}

Q9. If R3 = {(x, |x|) | x is a real number} is a relation. Then find domain and range
Sol: We have, R3 = {(x, |x)) | x is real number}
Clearly, domain of R3 = R
Now, x ∈ R and |x| ≥ 0 .
Range of R3 is [0,∞)

Q10. Is the given relation a function? Give reasons for your answer.
(i) h={(4,6), (3,9), (-11,6), (3,11)}
(ii) f = {(x, x) | x is a real number}
(iii) g = {(n, 1 In)| nis a positive integer}
(iv) s= {(n, n2) | n is a positive integer}
(v) t= {(x, 3) | x is a real number}
Sol: (i) We have, h = {(4,6),(3,9), (-11,6), (3,11)}.
Since pre-image 3 has two images 9 and 11, it is not a function.
(ii) We have, f = {(x, x) | x is a real number}
Since every element in the domain has unique image, it is a function.
(iii) We have, g= {(n, 1/n) | nis a positive integer}
For n, it is a positive integer and 1/n is unique and distinct. Therefore,every element in the domain has unique image. So, it is a function.
(iii) We have, s = {(n, n2) | n is a positive integer}
Since the square of any positive integer is unique, every element in the domain has unique image. Hence, ibis a function.
(iv) We have, t = {(x, 3)| x is a real number}.
Since every element in the domain has the image 3, it is a constant function.

Q11. If f and g are real functions defined byf( x) = x2 + 7 and g(x) = 3x + 5, find each of the following
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Q12. Let f and g be real functions defined by f(x) = 2x+ 1 and g(x) = 4x – 7.
(i) For what real numbers x,f(x)= g(x)?
(ii) For what real numbers x,f (x) < g(x)?
Sol: We have,f(x) = 2x + 1 and g(x) = 4x-7
(i) Now f (x) = g(x)
=> 2x+l=4x-7
=> 2x = 8 =>x = 4
(ii) f (x) < g(x)
=> 2x + 1 < 4x – 7
=> 8 < 2x
=> x > 4

Q13. If f and g are two real valued ftmctions defined as f(x) = 2x + 1, g(x) = x2 + 1, then find.
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Q14. Express the following functions as set of ordered pairs and determine their range.
f:X->R,f{x) =  x3 + 1, where X= {-1,0, 3, 9, 7}
Sol: We have, f:X→ R,flx) = x3 + 1.
Where X = {-1, 0, 3, 9, 7}
Now f (-l) = (-l)3+1 =-l + 1 =0
f(0) = (0)3+l=0+l = l
f(3) = (3)3 + 1 = 27 + 1 = 28
f(9) = (9)3 + 1 = 729 + 1 = 730
f(7) = (7)3 + 1 = 343 + 1 = 344
f= {(-1, 0), (0, 1), (3, 28), (9, 730), (7, 344)}
Range of f= {0, 1, 28, 730, 344}

Q15. Find the values of x for which the functions f(x) = 3x2 -1 and g(x) = 3+ x are equal.
Sol: f(x) = g(x)
=> 3x2-l=3+x => 3x2-x-4 = 0 => (3x – 4)(x+ 1) – 0
x= -1,4/3

Q16. Is g = {(1, 1), (2, 3), (3, 5), (4, 7)} a function? Justify. If this is described by the relation, g(x) = x +, then what values should be assigned to and ?
Sol:We have, g = {(1, 1), (2, 3), (3, 5), (4,7)}
Since, every element has unique image under g. So, g is a function.
Now, g(x) = x + For (1,1), g(l) = a(l) + P
=>                         l = +            (i)
For (2, 3), g(2) = (2) +
=>                         3 = 2 +         (ii)
On solving Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get = 2, = -l
f(x) = 2x-1
Also, (3, 5) and (4, 7) satisfy the above function.

Q17. Find the domain of each of the following functions given by

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Q18. Find the range of the following functions given by
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Q19. Redefine the function f(x) = |x-2| + |2+x| , -3 ≤x ≤3

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Q21. Let f (x) = √x and g(x) = xbe two functions defined in the domain R+ ∪ {0}. Find
(i) (f+g)(x)                
(ii) (f-g)(x)
(iii) (fg)(x)
(iv) f/g(x)

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Q23. If f( x)= y = ax-b/ cx-a then prove that f (y) = x
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Objective Type Questions
Q24. Let n(A) = m, and n(B) = n. Then the total number of non-empty relations that can be defined from A to B is
(a) mn                                          
(b) nm– 1                                    
(c) mn – 1                              
(d) 2mn– 1

Sol: (d) We have, n(A) = m and n(B) = n
n(A xB) = n(A). n(B) = mn
Total number of relation from A to B = Number of subsets of AxB = 2mn
So, total number of non-empty relations = 2mn – 1

Q25. If [x]2 – 5[x] + 6 = 0, where [. ] denote the greatest integer function, then
(a) x ∈ [3,4]
(b) x∈ (2, 3]                        
(c) x∈ [2, 3]                      
(d) x ∈ [2, 4)
Sol: (d) We have [x]2 – 5[x] + 6 = 0 => [(x – 3)([x] – 2) = 0
=> [x] = 2,3 .
For [x] = 2, x ∈ [2, 3)
For [x] = 3, x ∈ [3,4)
x ∈ [2, 3) u [3,4)
Or x ∈ [2,4)

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Q29. If fx) ax+ b, where a and b are integers,f(-1) = -5 and f(3) – 3, then a and b are equal to
(a) a = -3, b =-1
(b)  a = 2, b =-3
(c)  a = 0, b  = 2
(d) a = 2, b  = 3

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Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Q36. Let f and g be two real functions given by  f= {(0, 1), (2,0), (3,.-4), (4,2), (5, 1)}
g= {(1,0), (2,2), (3,-1), (4,4), (5, 3)}  then the domain of f  x g is given by________ .
Sol: We have, f = {(0, 1), (2, 0), (3, -4), (4, 2), (5,1)} and g= {(1, 0), (2, 2), (3, 1), (4,4), (5, 3)}
Domain of  f = {0,2, 3, 4, 5}
And Domain of g= {1, 2, 3,4, 5}
Domain of (f x g) = (Domain of f) ∩ (Domain of g) = {2, 3,4, 5}

Matching Column Type Questions

Q37. Let f= {(2,4), (5,6), (8, -1), (10, -3)} andg = {(2, 5), (7,1), (8,4), (10,13), (11, 5)} be two real functions. Then match the following:

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True/False Type Questions

Q38. The ordered pair (5,2) belongs to the relation R ={(x,y): y = x – 5, x,y∈Z}
Sol: False
We have, R = {(x, y): y = x – 5, x, y ∈ Z}
When x = 5, then y  = 5-5=0 Hence, (5, 2) does not belong to R.

Q39. If P = {1, 2}, then P x P x P = {(1, 1,1), (2,2, 2), (1, 2,2), (2,1, 1)}
Sol:False
We have, P = {1, 2} and n(P) = 2
n(P xPxP) = n(P) x n(P) x n(P) = 2 x 2 x 2
= 8 But given P x P x P has 4 elements.

Q40. If A= {1,2, 3}, 5= {3,4} and C= {4, 5, 6}, then (A x B) ∪ (A x C) = {(1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (1, 6), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (2, 6), (3, 3), (3,4), (3, 5), (3,6)}.
Sol: True
We have.4 = {1,2, 3}, 5= {3,4} andC= {4,5,6}
AxB= {(1, 3), (1,4), (2, 3), (2,4), (3, 3), (3,4)}
And A x C =   {(1,4), (1, 5), (1, 6), (2,4), (2, 5), (2, 6), (3,4), (3, 5), (3, 6)}
(A x B)∪(A xC)= {(1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (1, 6), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (2, 6), (3,3), (3,4), (3, 5), (3,6)}

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Q42. If Ax B= {(a, x), (a, y), (b, x), (b, y)}, thenM = {a, b},B= {x, y}.
Sol: True
We have, AxB= {{a, x), {a, y), (b, x), {b, y)}
A = Set of first element of ordered pairs in A x B = {a, b}
B = Set of second element of ordered pairs in A x B = {x, y}

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