NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology Plant Kingdom
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
1.What is the basis of classification of algae?
soln. Fritsch (1935), has classified algae considering phylogeny, affinities and inter-relationships of various forms. He classified algae mainly on the basis of the characters like structure of plant body, nature of the pigments, reserve food material, number and position of flagella, chemistry of cell wall and methods of reproduction etc. Algae is divided into 11 classes but among them 3 main classes are Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.
2.When and where does reduction division take place in the life cycle of a liverwort, a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm and an angiosperm?
soln.All of these plants show life cycle with one gametophytic (n) generation and one sporophytic (2n) generation. Reduction division or meiosis that produces haploid (n) cells from diploid cells (2n) is necessary in their life cycles to restore gametophyte generation after sporophytic generation. It occurs in different body structures according to the basic body design of these groups. Reduction division in a liverwort and moss takes place at the end of the sporophytic generation, where haploid spores are formed by reduction division of spore mother cell inside capsule. Spores germinate to produce dominant gametophytic generation. Reduction division in fern takes place at the end of the dominant sporophytic generation inside the sporangium from spore mother cell by reduction division. Spores may be of one type (homospory) or of two types (heterospory).
Reduction division in gymnosperms takes place at the end of dominant sporophytic generation. Megaspore and microspores are produced by the reduction division of diploid megaspore mother cell and diploid microspore mother cell respectively, inside megasporangium and microsporangium. Reduction division in angiosperms takes place at the end of dominant sporophytic generation. The haploid pollen grain or microspore and the haploid egg cell are produced by the reduction division of diploid (microspore) mother cell and diploid megaspore mother cell respectively. Microsporic division occurs inside anther and megasporic division occurs inside gynoecium (ovary).
3.Name three groups of plants that bear archegonia. Briefly describe the life cycle of any one of them.
soln. The three groups of plants that bear archegonia are bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms.
Life cycle of a bryophyte is as follows : The main plant body of bryophyte is gametophytic (n), which is independent and may be thallose (no differentiation in root, stem, leaves) e.g., Riccia, or may be foliose (having leafy axis) e.g., Funaria. The dominant phase in the life cycle of Funaria is the gametophyte, which occurs in two stages, the protonema stage and the erect, leafy gametophytic plant.
The leafy gametophyte consists of an upright, slender axis (stem-like) that bears spirally arranged leaves and is attached to the substratum by multicellular, branched rhizoids. Vegetative reproduction takes place
by fragmentation; by the buds formed in secondary protonema etc. The sex organs, antheridia and archegonia are produced in dusters at the apices of the leafy shoots. Antheridia produces antherozoids and archegonia produces egg. Antherozoid (male gamete) and egg (female gamete) fuses and form zygote.Zygote develops into a sporophyte; which is differentiated into foot, seta and capsule and spores are produced in the capsule.
Spores on reaching a suitable substratum germinate to produce a filamentous juvenile stage, .called the primary protonema, which later produces secondary protonema that forms erect leafy plants.
4.Mention the ploidyof the following rprotonemal cell of a moss; primary endosperm nucleus in dicot, leaf cell of a moss; prothallus cell of a fern; gemma cell in Marchantia; meristem cell of monocot, ovum of a liverwort, and zygote of a fern.
soln. Protonemal cell of a moss – haploid. Primary endosperm nucleus in dicot – triploid.
Leaf cell of a moss – haploid.
Prothallus cell of a fern – haploid.
Gemma cell in Marchantia – haploid. Meristem cell of monocot – diploid.
Ovum of a liverwort – haploid.
Zygote of a fern – diploid.
5.Write a note on economic importance of algae and gymnosperms.
soln. Economic importance of algae is as follows:
The group Algae plays both economically beneficial as well as harmful roles.
Beneficial importance :
(i) People of coastal countries have been using sea weeds & certain other algae as source of food, e.g., Porphyra, Ulva, Laminaria, etc.
(ii)Some algae are used as food for marine as well as domestic animals, e.g., Sargassum, Macrocystis.
(iii)Algae are useful source of many commercial products like agar, a jelly like substance (complex polysaccharide) is extracted form species of red algae belonging to the genera Gelidium, Gracilaria etc. Agar is also used as base in culture media. Carrageenin occurs as a cell wall polysaccharide, esterified with sulphate. It is extracted from red alga like Chondrus Crispin, etc. is used in pharmaceutical emulsifier and textile, leather, cosmetic industries. Alginates are salts of alginic acid found in the cell wall of phaeophyceae (brown algae) like Fucus, Laminaria etc.
(iv)Algae are also useful in medicine industry. Antibiotic chlorellin is obtained from Chlorella. Extracts of Cladophora, Lyngbya kill strains of Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium like bacteria. Nitella is used to destroy mosquitoes growth in ponds and hence used in control of malaria.
(v) Some algae are used in agriculture like Nostoc, Anabaena etc. are used to convert atmospheric N2 into nitrogenous compounds which are absorbed by higher plants. Some sea weeds like Fucus, Litlwphyllum, Lycophyllum etc. are rich io K, P, trace elements and growth substances and are used as fertilisers by coastal people.
(vi)Some algae like Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, etc. are used in sewage disposal in ponds. These algae help in bacterial decomposition by providing 02.
(vii)Some algae like Chlorella, Synecoccus, etc are used in space travels. A person inside a spaceship will need a device to get rid of C02 and other body wastes and will require sources of Oz and food. These algae are very useful for this purpose.
(viii)A large amount of iodine (mineral element present in thyroxine hormone of thyroid gland) is extracted from kelps (brown sea weeds or members of phaeophyceae) like Laminaria, Fucus, Ascophyllum etc. Similarly red algae like Rhodomela, Polysiphonia, Rhodymenia are sources of bromine.
(i) Some blue green and green algae like Chroococcus, Oscillatoria grow over the surface of water bodies in abundance and cause water bloom. On death and decay these algae give off bad smell. Some algae secrete poisonous or toxic substances.
(ii)Parasitic algae like Cephaleuros virescens causes red rust of tea, coffee etc.
Economic importance of gymnosperms is as follows:
(i)Some species of Cycas like C. revoluta, C. rumphii look like palm tree and are used for decoration purposes as they remain fresh for long period.
(ii)Stem portion of Cycas revoluta is a good source of ‘sago’, a kind of starch used in making bread by poor people. Seeds of some species of Cycas are roasted and taken as food. Young succulent leaves of some species of Cycas are cooked as vegetable.
(iii)Many gymnospersm have medicinal value. The fresh juice extracted from the Cycas circinalis leaves is used as medicine for stomach disorders, blood vomiting and other skin diseases. Pollen grains of some Cycas plants are reported to have some narcotic effect.
(iv)Some gymnosperms like Pinus, Abies, Cedrus are the chief source of various types of woods. The wood of Juniperus is used in making pencils, scales, holders etc.
(v)Some species of Pinus is a good source of turpentine, wood gas, wood alcohol.
6.Both gymnosperms and angiosperms bear seeds, then why are they classified separately?
soln.’Gymnosperms and angiosperms both bear seeds but they are classified separately because gymnosperms are a group of plants in which the ovules are freely exposed on open megasporophylls, whereas in angiosperms the seeds or ovules are enclosed within ovary which later forms the fruit.
7.What is heterospory? Briefly comment on its significance. Give two examples.
soln. The occurrence of two kinds of spores in the same plant is called as heterospory. Among them the smaller spore is called microspore and the larger spore is called megaspore. Heterospory first evolved in pteridophytes. Significance of heterospory
(i) Heterospory is associated with the sexual differentiation of gametophyte /.<?., a microspore develops into a male gametophyte whereas a megaspore develops into a female gametophyte.
(ii)In homosporous pteridophytes spores have to germinate on soil thus face more environmental problems. In heterosporous pteridophytes, spores germinate within the sporangium and the gametophytes are retained inside for variable periods of time. Hence, germinating gametophyte has better chances of survival. This lays the foundation of complete retention of gametophytes within sporophytes in angiosperms and gymnosperms.
(iii)Heterospory is the basis of development of seed habit in higher plants.
8.Explain briefly thefollowing terms with suitable examples.
(i) Protonema (ii) Antheridium
(iii)Archegonium (iv) Diplontic (v) Sporophyll (vi) Isogamy
soln. (i) Protonema : It is the first, usually branched, green and filamentous structure produced by a germinating moss or fern spore. The protonema of mosses bears buds that develop into the gametophyte plant. In fern the protonema becomes the prothallus.
(ii)Antheridium : The male sex organ of cryptogams (algae, fungi, bryophytes and
pteridophytes) is known as antheridium. It produces the male gametes or anthero- zoids. It may consist of a single cell or it may have a wall that is made up of one or several layers forming a sterile jacket around the developing gametes.
(iii)Archegonium : The multicellular flask shaped female sex organ of bryophytes, pteridophytes and many gymnosperms is known as archegonium. Its dialated base called the venter contains the female gamete or egg or oosphere. The cells of the narrow neck of archegonium liquify to allow the male gametes to swim towards the oosphere.
(iv)Diplontic : It is the kind of life cycle in which the diploid sporophyte is dominant and this diploid phase is photosynthetic. The gametophytic phase is represented either by gametes only, that are formed through meiosis or by a highly reduced few celled gametophyte. E.g., all seed-bearing plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms).
(v) Sporophyll : It is a type of leaf bearing sporangia. In ferns, the sporophylls are the normal foliage leaves, but in other plants the sporophylls are modified and arise in specialised structure such as the strobili of club-moss, gymnosperms and the flower of angiosperms. In most plants sporophylls are of two types – microsporophylls and megasporophylls.
(vi)Isogamy: It is a type of sexual reproduction where fusion takes place between two identical gametes. The gametes are similar in size and structure and they show equal motility during sexual reproduction, e.g., Spirogyra (algae).
9.Differentiate between the following:
(i) Red algae and brown algae
(ii)Homosporous and heterosporous pteridophytes
(iii)Liverworts and moss
(iv)Syngamy and triple fusion.
soln.(i) The differences between red algae and brown algae are as follows :
(ii) The differences between homosporous and heterosporous pteridophytes are as follows:
(iii) The differences between liverworts and mosses are as follows :
(iv) The differences between syngamy and triple fusion are as follows :
10.How would you distinguish monocots from dicots?
Soln. Differences between monocots and dicots are as follows :
11.Match the following (Column I with Column II).
Column I Column II
(c) Selagmella (iii)Algae
(d) Sphagnum (iv)Gymnosperm
Chlamydomonas – Algae
Cycas – Gymnosperm
Selayinella – Pteridophyte
Sphagnum – Moss
12.Describe the important characteristics of gymnosperms.
Soln. The term gymnosperm is derived from two Greek words: Gymnos = naked + Sperma = seed, i.e., naked seeded plants. So gymnosperms are a group of plants inwhich the ovules are freely exposed on open megasporophylls. The important characteristics of gymnosperms are :
– Living gymnosperms are perennial and vary from predominantly medium – sized trees (Cycas) to tall trees (Pinus) and shrubs (Ephedra).
– Plants possess tap root system. Some genera possess symbiotic relationship of N2 fixing algae in coralloid roots (Cycas) and fungi in mycorrhizal roots (Pinus).
– The stems are aerial, erect, branched (unbranched in Cycas) and woody.
– The leaves may be simple or compound. They are scaly and foliage also. Leaves are well adapted to withstand extremes of temperature, humidity and wind.
-Roots are characterised by the presence of diarch to polyarch vascular bundles. Xylem is exarch.
-Stems are provided with collateral, endarch and open vascular bundles which are arranged in a ring. Secondary growth is present and annual rings are formed.
-Xylem contains xylem parenchyma and tracheids with bordered pits and vessels are absent (except in Gnetum; Ephedra and Wehmtschia).
-Phloem contains sieve cells and phloem parenchyma and companion cells are absent (except in Gnetum; Ephedra and Weluhtschia).
-Leaves are protected by thick layers of cuticle. Sunken stomata are present. Mesarch xylem and transfusion tissues are found in the leaves. Palisade tissue and spongy parenchyma may be present in mesophyll or it may be undifferentiated.
-The reproductive organs form cones or strobilus except female organs of Cycas.
-The male cone is made of overlapping microsprophylls, that bear micros ¬porangia on the abaxial side which produce microspores.
-Female cone is formed by overlapping megasporophylls which bear ovules (megasporangia).
-Ovule is orthotropous, unitegmic with 3 layers i.e. outer fleshy, middle stony and inner fleshy.
– The nucellus of ovule contains single megaspore mother cell which undergoes reduction division to form 4 megaspores, out of which 3 degenerate and only one survives.
– So gymnosperm is heterosporous i.e. producing microspores and megaspores.
– Single megaspore forms haploid female
gametophyte or endosperm before fertilisation. .
– At micropylar end of female gametophyte 2 or more archegonia are produced. Archegonium is with reduced neck (with no neck canal cell).
– Microspores are released from microsporangium and are carried in air currents and come in contact with the micropyle of the ovules.
– Pollen tube carrying the male gametes grows towards archegonia and discharges its contents near the mouth of the archegonia.
– After fertilisation zygote or oospore gives rise to embryo proper and the ovules develop into seeds.
– Polyembryony i.e., development of more than one embryo is an usual feature of gymnosperms but only one of them survives at later stage.
– In embryo 2 or many cotyledons are present.
– The seeds of gymnosperms are uncovered.