CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper With Solutions Set 10
[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.] [Max. Marks : 70]
Questions 1-7 (1 Mark), 8-13 (3 Marks), 14-20 (5 Marks), 21 and 22 (Map Question-5 Marks each)
Q.1.Which class of cities has the highest percentage of urban population in India.
Ans. Class I cities has the highest percentage of urban population in India. .
Q.2. How is the actual growth of population calculated.
Ans. The actual growth of population is calculated by :
Actual Growth = Births – Deaths + In Migration – Out Migration.
Q.3. Name the country, which has the highest human development index.
Ans. Norway has the highest ranking in the human development index.
Q.4. Which is the main sources of environmental pollution in India?
Ans. The release of substances and energy from waste products of human activities are the main , source of environmental pollution.
Q.5. Name the Indian seaports which provide port facilities to its land-locked neighbouring x countries?
Ans. Kolkata sea-port provides port facilities to its land locked neighbouring countries Nepal and Bhutan.
Q.6. Define the term transport?
Ans. Transport is a system by which passengers and goods are carried from one place to another.
Q.7. When was “Indira Gandhi Canal” project launched?
Ans. The Indira Gandhi Canal project was launched on 31st March, 1958.
Q.8.Write down the six sub-fields of economic geography.
Ans. The sub-fields of economic geography are:
(i)Geography of Resources
(ii)Geography of Agriculture
(iii)Geography of Industry
(iv)Geography of Marketing
(v)Geography of Tourism
(vi)Geography of International Trade.
Q.9. Why is human development necessary in India? Explain any three reasons.
Ans. Human development is necessary because :
•Better living conditions are provided to the aspiring people and have the wide range of opportunities to choose for the enrichment of their life and to enjoy freedom.
•The main aim of ‘Human Development’ is to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor. It gives healthy civil society and attains social stability.
•Human development reduces enimity with each other, it increases awareness promotes peace as communal riots, crimes etc., are reduced in the society. It provides a strong platform to the government.
•As the human development takes place, people are given wider choices, and helpful in alleviating poverty. People check desertification, deforestation and soil erosion which they were doing earlier to earn their livelihood because human development is eco-friendly also.
•Human development helps in attaining higher productivity. When people live healthy well nourished life and are highly educated and skilled in varied technologies, they become the most important assets to attain productivity. So unless their health, education and training is taken care the productivity cannot be attained or in other words we can say that development cannot be attained.
Q.10.The American slave auction advertised slaves for sale or temporary hire, by their owners. Buyers often paid as much as $2,000 for a skilled, healthy slave. Such auctions often separated family members from one another, many of whom never saw their loved ones again.
(i)What does this advertisement highlight?
(ii)How the price of the slaves decided?
(iii)What kinds of values are needed to bring slavery to an end?
Ans. (i) The above advertisement shows the American slave auction and it advertised slaves for sale for temporary hire by their owner.
(ii)The price of the slave is solely decided on skill and good health.
(iii)The values are needed to bring slavery to an end are:
equality, universal brotherhood and fraternity They should be empowered to make choices and dignity
Q.11.What are the effects of air pollution on human health.
Ans. The major sources of air pollution are : Combustion of coal, petrol and diesel, industrial processes, solid waste disposal, and sewage disposal.
The effects of air pollution on human health are as follows :
(i)The ozone layer of the atmosphere gets damaged by different types of chemical pollution. The ozone layer is depleted by the chlorofluoro-carbon and great shrinkage in the glaciers.
(ii)Air pollution results into the spread of diseases related to lungs, skin, and throat etc.
(iii)Accumulation of the ‘urban smog’ in the major towns and cities by the poisonous gases prevailing in the atmosphere.
(iv)Air pollution also causes acid-rains.
Q.12. What are the social benefits of ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region.
Ans. The social benefits of ITDP (Integrated Tribal Development Project) are as follows:
•Enhance in the literacy rate from 1.88 per cent in 1971 to 42.83 per cent in 2001.
•The variation between gender inequality has also declined.
•Now Gaddi tribal population is more prone to the cultivation of foodgrains and livestock rearing with obsolete techniques and tools.
Q.13.The Petlawad block of Jhabua is located in the northernmost part of the district and represents an interesting and successful case of Government-NGO partnership and community participation in managing watershed programmes. The Bhils in Petlawad block, for example, (Sat Rundi hamlet of Karravat village), through their own efforts.have revitalised large parts of common property resources. Each household has planted and maintained one tree on the common property. They also have planted fodder grass on the pasture land and adopted social-fencing of these lands for at least two years. Even after that, they say, there would be no open grazing on these lands, but stall feeding of cattle, and they are thus confident that the pastures they have developed would sustain their cattle in future.
Read the above paragraph and analyse the following
(i)Where is the Petlawad block of Jhabua located ?
(ii)What kind of value they have shown
Ans. (i) The Petlawad block of Jhabua is located in the northernmost part of the district of Madhya Pradesh.
(ii)The scheduled tribe Bhiis in Petlawad block, through their cooperation towards sensitising the environment, they revitalised the large parts of common property resource. (CPRs). It shows the value of collective response of community towards environment.
Q.14. Explain the five groups of towns of the world, depending on the size, services available and functions rendered.
Ans. The five types of towns on the basis of functions are :
•Administrative Towns. The main functions of administrative towns is to administer the country, state or a specific territory. It includes not only the capital cities of countries, but all the centres of provinces, states, districts and administrative divisions of the country. Mexico city, Buenos Aires and Bijing etc., are administrative towns.
•Defensive Towns. During the medieval period, most of the towns and cities used to be developed on the defensive sites. Forts and garrisons used to be constructed at strategic sites.
The defensive towns have barracks, cantonments, training facilities for the armed forces, air fields and harbours for warships. Khadakwasla (India), Peshawar (Pakistan), Playmouth (England) and Nova-Scotia (Canada) have developed as the defensive towns.
•Cultural Centres. There are numerous towns and cities in the world, almost in each of the countries, which perform cultural functions. Oxford and Cambridge in England are educational towns. Varanasi (India) and Mecca (Saudi Arabia) are religious towns, whereas Shimla (India) and Las-Vegas (USA) are recreational towns.
•Industrial Towns. Mining and manufacturing towns have developed in mining and manufacturing regions. Kalgoorlie, Coolgardie, Dhanbad and Khetri are industrial towns.
•Trade and Transport Towns. Many old towns were famous as trade centres. Dusseldorf in Germany, Winnipeg in Canada are trade and transport town.
Q.15. What benefits do the nations get by forming trading blocs?
Ans. The international trade has become very complex with a high degree of sepecialisation in agricultural and industrial production. It has become an important component of the world economy.
•The global trade has grown much more rapidly over the past 25 years.
•The average annual growth rate of the value of the world exports was twice that between 1955 and 1995.
•Today roughly 25 per cent of the world’s total output is traded among nation-states.
•Most of the world’s trade has been taking place within the blocs as a result of the effects of distance, the legacy of colonial relationship and geographical alliances.
Q.16. Define market gardening and horticulture? Describe any four of its characteristics.
Ans. The market gardening and horticulture is one of the most specialised forms of cultivation of
vegetables, fruits and flowers, which has high value and have great demand in urban market.
The four features of market gardening and horticulture are :
(i)It requires good and quick transportation system as fruits, vegetables and flowers are perishable in nature. Hence this farming is also stated as ‘truck farming’.
(ii)This type of farming is capital as well as labour intensive.
(iii)More stress is given on the optimum use of HYV seeds, pesticides, fertilisers, other means of irrigation and greenhouses for artificial heating in colder regions.
(iv)It is more common in the densely populated industrial regions of developed countries (North-west Europe, north eastern regions of the USA and Canada, Southern Europe, etc).
Q.17. Describe any five factors influencing industrial location in the world?
Ans. Following factors favour the localisation of an industry :
•Nearness of Raw Material : The heavy and basic industries are mainly localised near the source of raw material, as the raw material is the soul of the industries. They are established in the area surrounding the raw material to minimise the transport cost. The sugar industries are located near the raw material, as sugar cane is a perishable product and delays in transport affect the production. The heavy raw material based industries are found generally near the availability of the raw material. The paper and pulp industries and saw mills are located in the coniferous forest region due to easy availability of the raw material.
•Power Resources : Coal, petroleum and hydro-electricity are the chief sources of power. The heavy industries need power in abundance. These industries are generally localised near the areas where power is easily available. The Damodar valley in India and the Rhur valley in Germany are the main industrial centres due to coal and hydro-electric power. The iron and steel industry, fertiliser, aluminium and copper smelting are power intensive industries, hence located near the sources of power.
•Means of Transport: The means of transport are the ‘arteries and veins’ of industries, as these connect the producer to consumer. Hence industries are set up in those places which are endowed with cheap, quick and abundant means of transport.
•Suitable Climatic Condition : Climate plays an important role in their establishment. The cold climate affects health and ultimately the efficiency of work and the damp climate is helpful to the cotton textile industry. The dry atmospheric conditions are helpful for the aircraft industry.
•Abundant and cheap Labour Force : The skill and technique of manufacturing
something is very essential. The skilled labour and technique of appliances increases the quality and quantity of production. The manufacturing of watches in Switzerland, toys and electronics in Japan, glasswork in Ferozabad and textile in Lancashire are famous due to skilled and specialised labour force.
Q.18. Describe the major challenges of agriculture in present India. What steps have been taken by the Indian government to improve agriculture?
Ans. Agriculture is the main occupation of people of India. It is the source of living for about 70% of its working population. It is the base of Indian economy. Despite its dominant role, agriculture has not been able to provide the basic needs of the country. Our agriculture has been failed to meet the food grain requirement of the ‘country.
Many factors have hindered the development of agriculture in India. They are as follows:
•Pressure of Population on Land. Due to continuous increase in population, pressure of population on land is increasing. Due to over crowding, the per capita cultivated land in India has been reduced to only 0.3 hectares. It has resulted in shortage of food grains. The growth rate in agriculture is also low.
•Inadequate Irrigation Facilities. In India, agriculture depends on monsoonal rainfall. Due to uncertain and variable rainfall, irrigation is necessary. Only 22% of cultivated land is irrigated. It is necessary to irrigate at least 50% of the cultivated land to make it a success. Moreover, irrigation is required to increase the yield productivity and the intensity of cropping to check the severe drought.
•Low productivity. In India, the yield per hectare of food grains and other crops is low as compared to other countries of the world. High yielding varieties have been introduced. But only 16% of the cultivated land is under high yielding varieties.
•Poor Techniques of Production. Due to continuous agriculture over a long period, the fertility of soils is declining. To maintain its fertility, the use of chemical fertilisers is necessary. Indian farmers have been using old inefficient methods due to which there is low productivity. Use of better quality seeds and pesticides can increase the productivity.
•Lack of Mechanised Farming. Agriculture is mostly intensive. Human labour is used to get maximum output. Use of modern machines is limited due to low purchasing power of farmers. The government has been taking some steps to remove the drawbacks of the agriculture. A new strategy have been adopted to bring many improvements in the economic, technical and organisational form of the agriculture in India.
â™¦The area under cultivation has been increased. The intensity of cropping has been increased. More than one crops are being obtained from the same field. It has resulted in increased agricultural production.
â™¦Many minor and major irrigation schemes have been completed to provide more irrigation facilities.
â™¦The use of better quality seeds and fertilisers has been ecouraged. High yielding varieties are being introduced. Many research centres and agricultural universities have been setup to introduce new techniques.
â™¦Mechanised farming is being provided with the help of many government institutions. Modern agricultural implements like combines, tractors crushers etc., are being used.
â™¦Consolidation of land holdings had been done to check the fragmentation of landholdings. Ceiling of land holding had been introduced.
â™¦Many facilities have been provided in the field of marketing of agricultural products. Government fixes the support prices of the food grains every year.
â™¦The linkage between agriculture and industry had been strengthened by developing the cottage industries.
â™¦Green Revolution and package programmes have,been started in many areas.
Q.19. Describe the five main characteristics of our international trade after independence.
Ans. Following are the main characteristics of our international trade after independence :
•It has only increased in volume and value but the changes in its direction have also taken place. We are no longer tied to the one side trade relations with Great Britain and other commonwealth countries as was the position before the attainment of independence.
•We now supply both the raw materials and manufactured goods to foreign countries.
•Our main exports are tea, jute, cotton, iron-ore, coffee and engineering goods etc. We import machinery, mineral oil, long staple, cotton, chemicals, copper, transport equipment paper, newsprint, fertilisers etc.
•We are having increasing trade relations with USA, Canada, Australia, Japan, Russia, Europe and oil producing countries rather than with Great Britain.
•Our exports now enable us to import specialised machinery, oil, certain ores etc., which are in short supply in our country.
Q.20. Describe in brief the different trends of population growth in the world from early
period to the present day.
Ans. The five different trends of population growth in the world are as follows :
•In the initial phase of human history, the human population growth was at a snail speed. The hazardous climatic conditions and the migratory character and the poor nourishment were all unfavourable for the growth of population. After the last Ice age about 10,000 years ago before birth of Christ onjy 1 lakh to 10 lakh people were in the world.
•During the period of agricultural revolution man learnt to grow crops and live in settlement often on river banks. Availability of food gave some stability to man, death caused by hunger declined. Nutrition in food and other comforts, i.e., medical facilities, sanitation etc. helped them to live longer life. It was during this period the early Greeks began to differentiate between the inhabited and uninhabited world. In Ecumene, agriculture was the main occupation. It occupied only just 5-10 per cent of the earth’s surface, about 8,000 to 12,000 years ago. In the first AD the world’s population was estimated at around 25.6 crores.
•The dawn of industrial revolution is attributed to 1750 AD. Before this period new and unknown lands were discovered in the course of voyages and discoveries. At the beginning of the industrial revolution, the population of the whole world was around 50 crores.
•The development in the means of transport such as in place of human and animal power. Steam engine and mechanisation received great encouragement. Development in the transport made, the mobility of people easy from one place to other. The population growth in the 1930 was 2 billion.
•Many demographers have presented their own estimates from time to time. According to one estimate, the total population of the world in 2010 will be 6.8 million, in 2020 about 8 billion and in 2200 it will cross 10 billion.
Q.21. On the given outline map of the World, following five features are shown. Identify these features and write their correct names on the lines marked near each feature.
(i)Terminal station of Trans Asiatic Railway
(ii)Mega city of Japan
(iii)A major airport
(iv)A major seaport.
(v)Major areas of Nomadic Herding
(v)Major areas of Nomadic Herding
Ans. (i) Bangkok (ii) Osaka (iii) Aden (iv) Colon (v) Mongolia
Q.22. On the given outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:
(i)The oil refinery in Haryana
(ii)State having lowest density of population
(iii)Software technology park in Himachal Pradesh
(iv)International air port of Kerala
(v)Jute producing Areas