CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper With Solutions Set 7

[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.]                                                                                              [Max. Marks : 70]
Questions 1-7 (1 Mark), 8-13 (3 Marks), 14-20 (5 Marks), 21 and 22 (Map Question-5 Marks each)

Q.1.Name the trade organization which transformed from GATT?
Ans. World Trade Organisation is the organisation which transformed from GATT.

Q.2. Which iron and steel industry has been stated as “Rust Bowl”?
Ans. Pittsburg has been stated as “Rust Bowl” of USA.

Q.3. Name the two top ranking countries in Human Development Index.
Ans. (1) Norway (2) Iceland

Q.4. Name any two diseases caused by air pollution.
Ans. (1) Respiratory infection (2) Bronchitis

Q.5. Write down the terminal stations of ‘Trans-Siberian Railway’.
Ans. The terminal station of Trans-Siberian Railways is St. Petersburg in the west to Vladivostok in East.

Q.6. Write down the name of sea port who cater the trade facilities to Nepal and Bhutan.
Ans. Kolkata sea post-eater the trade facilities to Nepal and Bhutan.

Q.7. What is cyber space?
Ans. The cyberspace is the world of electronic computer space, which include internet as world wide web.

Q.8. Explain the concept of Neo- determinism with three suitable points.
Ans. ‘Neo-Determinism’ is the new concept coined by Griffth Taylor in the field of human geography. He believed that the best economic programme of a country to follow has in large part been determined by nature, and it is geographer’s duty to interpret this programme. Man is able to accelerate, slow or stop the progress of a country’s development. He is like the traffic controller in a large city, who alters the rate not the direction of progress; and perhaps the phrase ‘stop and go determinism’ express succinctly the Griffth Taylor philosophy. Man follows nature’s programme only if he is wise, presuming he can act foolishly, which admits the possibilities contention that within broad limits set by environment man can choose, at the very last.

Q.9. Describe three main features of nomadic herding.
Ans. Pastoral Nomadism. Pastoral nomadism is a subsistence activity depending on animals. The nomads do not live a settled life, each community occupies a well-defined territory. The animals depend entirely on natural vegetation.
The main features of pastoral nomadism are :
•The people, who are engaged in pastoralism donot lead a settled life.
•They rear sheep, goats, camels, cattle, horses and donkeys.
•The animal rearing is mainly for self-sustenance.
•Low animal produce.
•In pastoral nomadism they migrate alongwith their livestock in search of fodder and water.
•The Fulani of Nigeria, Khirgiz of central Asia and Bushmen of Sahara are the examples of Pastoral nomadism.

Q.10. Rajesh has been working on contract as a wielder in a construction site in Talc her (coal region of Odisha) for the last two year. He moved with contractor to various places like Surat, Gandhi nagar, Bharuch, Jamnagar and so on. He remits Rs 20,000 per year v to his father in his native village. The remittances have been mainly used for daily
consumption, health care, schooling of children etc. The standard of living of Ramesh’s family improved significantly.Read the above paragraph and analyze the following:
(i)How much money does Ramesh’s remit to his father in his native village?
(ii)What kind of values does it reveals?
(iii)What kind of activities is done through these remittances?
Ans. (i) Ramesh remits Rs 20,000 per year to his father in his native village.
(ii)It shows the concreteness and love to his father and it also reveals the duty of son to take care of his father and family members.
(iii)The remittances send by Ramesh is mainly spent on health care, schooling of kids.

Q.11. Why is there an increase in demand of irrigation in India?
Ans. Population growth in India has increased threefold since after independence. Following are
the major causes of increasing demand of irrigation in India :
•Uncertainity of Rainfall. The time and quantity of rain in India is uncertain. Monsoon rain sometime starts before its definite time and sometimes ends before its set time of ending. Sometimes, it starts at the right time but deceives in the middle and sometimes it arrives too late to sow Kharif crops. Sometimes, rains are so meager, that our country ” faces draught.
•Unequal distribution of Rainfall. The average rainfall in India is 118 cm, but it is unevenly distributed in our country. The western coast and North-Eastern part of india receives heavy rainfall. Mawsynram receives more than 1200 cm annual rainfall, whereas Rajasthan and
Ladakh receive less than 20 cm annual rainfall. Draught periods are experienced even in the areas of heavy rainfall. The need of irrigation arises for the secured and good harvest.
•Increase in Population. The population of India is growing continuously. The population of India is 102.7 million as per Census 2001. The country needs 20 crore tonnes of cereals to feed such a large population.

Q.12.The social relations among the rural settlements are intimate. What kind of value does it shows?
Ans. The rural people are less mobile and their relations are intimate as because of the following points:
(1) Their life is simpler whereas the life of urban settlement is complex and fast.
(2)In the rural areas they share the common bonding towards many social responsibilities.
(3)The collective responsibility make them concern and caring to each other, which is completely lacking in the urban settlements.

Q.13. What is Road-density? Describe any three factors with examples, that affects the density of roads in India.
Ans. The density of road means the length of roads per 100 sq km of an area. Kerala, Goa and Tamil Nadu have high density of roads, whereas Jammu and Kashmir has the minimum in India. ‘
Factors that affects the density of roads in India are as’follows :
•The Himalayan region has rugged terrain construction and maintenance of roads is quite expensive.
•The level of economic development also determines the density of roads, as Punjab is agriculturally developed region of the country.
•The northern plain has high density because the construction of roads is easy and cheaper in the isotropic plain area.

Q.14. Explain any five factors which affect the location of rural settlement in the World.
Ans. Rural settlements are closely related to land, water supply, upland or highland, building material and defence etc. The factors that influenced rural settlements are as follows:
(i)Water Supply : Rural settlements are located near water bodies such as rivers, lakes, springs and tanks, where water resource is easily accessible. Sometimes the need for water drives people to settle in otherwise disadvantage sites such as islands surrounded by swamps or low lying river banks. Water is the main basic need of human society. Hence ‘wet points’ greatly influence rural settlements.
(ii)Land: Fertile land is a major factor for rural settlements. The rural inhabitants are mainly confined to primary activities i.e., agriculture. In southern Asia, rural settlements are highly con-centrated near river valleys and coastal plains.
(iii)Upland: High elevated landmass, which are free from the common occurrence of flood. Thus main concentration of rural settlements are terraces and levees which are said to be dry points.
(iv)Building Materials : The easy availability of building materials-wood, stone near settlements is a boon. The primitive societies built their houses near forests, where wood was plentiful. Eskimos, in the polar areas use ice blocs to construct their house igloos.
(v)Defence: In earlier times, there was political instability and war hostility of neighbouring groups, villages were built on defensive hills and islands. The settlement of Jaiseimer is greatly influenced by the invasion of various warrior groups.

Q.15. Explain five important trends in occupational structure of workers in India.
Ans. •The proportion of agricultural workers is declining. In 2001 agricultural workers accounted for 58.20 per cent as it was 67.37 per cent in the 1991 Census and 72 per cent respectively in 1971 Census.
•The secondary and tertiary activities in the Census 2001, are defined as non- agricultural activities. These non-agricultural activities and household industries employed about 41.70 per cent of workers against 32.60 per cent workers in 1991.
•Among the female workers most of them were engaged in agricultural sector. Their share in 2001 is 71.79 per cent and 28.21 per cent of female workers are engaged in service (tertiary) sector.
•The percentage of male workers in secondary and tertiary sector is 48.10 per cent. Their per cent in agricultural sector has declined to 51.90 per cent.
•The importance of household industries is increasing. In this sector 4.22 per cent workers are engaged in 2001, as in 1971 it was only 3.5 per cent.

Q.16. Describe any five factors influencing industrial location in the world.
Ans. Following factors favour the localisation of an industry :
• Nearness of Raw Material : The heavy and basic industries are mainiy localised near the source of raw material, as the raw material is the soul of the industries. They are established in the area surrounding the raw material to minimise the transport cost. The i sugar industries are located near the raw material, as sugar cane is a perishable product and delays in transport affect the production. The heavy raw material based industries are found generally near the availability of the raw material. The paper and pulp industries 1 and saw mills are located in the coniferous forest region due to easy availability of the raw material.
•Power Resources: Coal, petroleum and hydro-electricity are the chief sources of power. The heavy industries need power in abundance. These industries are generally localised near the areas where power is easily available. The Damodar valley in India and the Rhur
valley in Germany are the main industrial centres due to coal and hydro-electric power. The iron and steel industry, fertiliser, aluminium and copper smelting are power intensive ir.i industries, hence located near the sources of power.
•Means of Transport: The means of transport are the ‘arteries and veins’ of industries, as these connect the producer to consumer. Hence industries are set up in those places which are endowed with cheap, quick and abundant means of transport.
•Suitable Climatic Condition: Climate plays an important role in their establishment. The cold climate affects health and ultimately the efficiency of work and the damp climate is helpful to the cotton textile industry. The dry atmospheric conditions are helpful for the aircraft industry.
•Abundant and cheap Labour Force: The skill and technique of manufacturing something is very essential. The skilled labour and technique of appliances increases the quality and quantity of production. The manufacturing of watches in Switzerland, toys and electronics
in Japan, glass work in Ferozabad and textile in Lancashire are famous due to skilled and specialised labour force.

Q.17. Explain any five measure necessary for the promotion of sustainable development in
‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area’.
Ans.The measures taken for the promotion or restoration of sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal
Command Area are as follows :
(i)Implementation of the better water management, the canal project forms protective irrigation in stage-I and vast development of the crop and pasture land in stage-II.
(ii)Salinity occured due to water- logging should be properly checked, as it increases vast salt regime in the Thar desert region.
(iii)Setting up proper infrastructure such as roads, markets, storage facilities and drinking water.
(iv) The construction of proper warabandi (the equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) system for fair and efficient distribution of irrigation water.
(v)Selection and adoption of suitable agronomic practises. People of this region are encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits, dates and palm.
(vi)The economic development through mass afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and
pasture development mainly in fragile environment of stage-II. (any five)

Q.18. Name the vital man-made shipping canal which connects the Atlantic Ocean to the
Pacific ocean. State any four characteristics of this canal.
Ans. The vital man-made shipping canal which connects the Atlantic Ocean to Pacific Ocean is
the Panama Canal. The four characteristics of the Panama Shipping Canal is as follows :
(i)The Panama canal is located at the Panama Isthmus (Panama, Central America).
(ii)The length of this canal is 80 kms, minimum depth is 13 metres and width is 100 – 300 metres.
(iii)48 ships pass daily through this canal. Ships require 8 hrs to pass the canal. The Panama Canal has lockgates. The canal is higher than the sea level hence ships have to lift with locks at some places and bring down at other places.
(iv)The coastal areas of Eastern and Western America (U.S.A.), countries of South America, West of European countries, and countries of Asia benefit from the Panama Canal.

Q.19. State five characteristics each of the ‘surface water resources’ and ‘ground water resources’ in India.
Ans. The five characteristics of surface water resources in India are : .
(i)The surface water is found in ponds, tanks, rivers, streams and reservoirs,
(ii)Rivers are the major source of water in India. There are 10,360 rivers and their tributaries longer than 1.6 km each spread in our country.
(iii)The mean annual flow is estimated to be 1,869 billion cubic metres.
(iv)Only 690 bmc (32 percent) of the available surface water can be utilised.
(v)The Indus, the Ganga and the Brahamaputra carry nearly 60 percent of the total surface water.
The five characteristics of ground water resources in India are :
(i)The replensishable ground water potential in India is estimated to be 433.9 billion cubic metres.
(ii)Water percolates easily in the alluvial plains hence it has high potential of ground water.
(iii)Uttar Pradesh alone accounts for 19 percent ground water potential.
(iv)About 42 per cent of the ground water potential are confined to the states of Punjab, Haryana, Bihar and West Bengal.
(v)In the peninsular India ground water potential is less or negligible because of rocky land surface.
(vi)Only 37.23 per cent of the available ground water resources have so far been developed
in India. (any five)

Q.20. Why is human development is necessary in India? Explain any five reasons.
Ans. Human development is necessary because :
•Better living conditions are provided to the aspiring people and have the wide range of opportunities to choose for the enrichment of their life and to enjoy freedom.
•The main aim of ‘Human Development’ is to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor. It gives healthy civil society and attains social stability.
•Human development reduces enimity with each other, it increases awareness promotes peace as communal riots, crimes etc., are reduced in the society. It provides a strong platform to the government.
•As the human development takes place, people are given wider choices, and helpful in alleviating poverty. People check desertification, deforestation and soil erosion which they were doing earlier to earn their livelihood because human development is eco-friendly also.
•Human development helps in attaining higher productivity. When people live healthy well nourished life and are highly educated and skilled in varied technologies, they become the most important assets to attain productivity. So unless their health, education and training is taken care the productivity cannot be attained or in other words we can say that development cannot be attained.

Q. 21.On the given outline map of the World, the following five features are shown. Identify  these features and write their correct names on the lines marked near each feature.
(i)Country having the highest growth rate in Africa continent
(ii)Mega city of Argentina
(iii)North -East Industrial Region of North America
(iv)A major sea port of the USA
(v)Rhine Waterways
Ans. (i) Liberia (ii) Buenos Aires (iii) N.E. Industrial Region of North America (iv) San Francisco (v)Rhine Waterway

Q. 22. On the given outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:
(i)Telugu speaking state
(ii)Metropolitan city of Punjab
(iii)Cotton producing state ,
(iv)Southern Terminal of North-South Corridor
(v)State with the highest literacy Rate