CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper With Solutions Set 9

[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.]                                                                                              [Max. Marks : 70]
Questions 1-7 (1 Mark), 8-13 (3 Marks), 14-20 (5 Marks), 21 and 22 (Map Question-5 Marks each)

Q.1.Which sector (economic activity) uses the most of the surface and ground water in India?
Ans. The primary sector (agriculture) uses the most of the surface and ground water in India.

Q.2. Name any two fossil fuels.
Ans. Coal and natural gas are the two fossil fuels.

Q.3. What is meant by Privatisation according to the New Industrial policy of India 1991?
Ans. Privatisation. Under the new economic policy, public sector which are running into losses are given to the private sector, So as to increase its output on modern and scientific lines.

Q.4. Name any two modern towns development by Britishers during colonial period.
Ans. (1) Kolkata (Calcutta) (2) Delhi

Q.5. What is viticulture?
Ans. A type of farming, mainly confined to the cultivation of grapes in the Mediterranean regions’ of south Europe and north Africa.

Q.6. Write down the names of two inland ports of the world?
Ans. The two inland ports of the world are :
(1)Duizburg on the bank of river Rhine.
(2)Kolkata on the bank of river Hugli.

Q.7. Mention any two cultural factors responsible for water pollution in India.
Ans. The two cultural activities which are responsible for water pollution are:
(1)Pilgrimage, religious fares held near the river banks and tourism.
(2)Immersion of idols, ashes and dead bodies etc.

Q.8. What are the two traditional approaches to the study of human geography? State the main features of each approach with examples.
Ans. The two traditional approaches to the study of human geography are Determinism and Possibilism.
The features of Determinism are:
In this approach all the activities of human beings are determined by the environment in which he lives.
•Environment provides certain forms to human society.
•This school of thought considers man as an active agent and nature as a passive agent.
The features of Possibilism are :
•Natural environment does not control human life.
•Environment provides certain possibilities to man
•In this case, natural environment Is inert and man is seen as an active force rather than a passive one.

Q.9.”………………Buses merely skirt the periphery. Autorickshaws cannot go there, Dharavi is part of central Bombay where three wheelers are banned. Only one main road traverses the slum, the miscalled ‘ninety-foot road’, which has been reduced to less than half of that for most of its length. Some of the side alleys and laties are so narrow that not even a bicycle can pass. The whole neighbourhood consists of temporary buildings, two or three storeyed high with rusty iron stairways to the upper part, where a single room is rented by a whole family, sometimes accommodating twelve or more people; it is a kind of tropical version of the industrial dwelling of Victorian London’s East End.
Read the above paragraph and analyse the following :
(i)Name the Main road, which traverses the slum.
(ii)Name Asia’s largest slum.
(iii)How many family members accommodated in a single room ? What kind of values are needed ?
Ans.(i)Ninety Foot road” only traverses through the slum.
(ii)Dharavi is Asia’s largest slum.
(iii)The single room is accommodated more than twelve people. To follow the family planning programme initiated by the government to reduce the size of family, (value) is needed.

Q.10. Describe the factors responsible for imbalance in the sex-age found in the different parts of the world.
Ans. • Lower socio-economic status of females, particularly in the developing countries like south Asiatic countries and the underdeveloped countries of African continent.
•Mass female foeticide due to advancement in the medical sciences.
•Mass female infanticide and domestic violence against females are prevalent.
•Migration is very important demographic dynamics which effect the sex-ratio of a country to a great extent. The number of males were more than the females in USA in the beginning of the 20th century.

Q.11. What is rain-water harvesting? State any four main objective of rain water harvesting?
Ans. Rainwater harvesting. Rainwater harvesting is a technique of increasing the recharge of
groundwater by capturing and storing rainwater.
The four major objectives of rainwater harvesting are :
•To meet the increasing demand for water.
•To reduce run off and to avoid flooding of roads.
•To augment the groundwater storage and raise watertable.
•To supplement domestic water requirement during summer and long dry spells.

Q.12.Why the empowered workers of quarternary sector slowly emerging in to quinrary
sector? What kind of values does it shows?
Ans. (i) The empowered workers of quarternary sector are slowly and gradually diverting to quinary sector, as it is considered as pink collar job,which is highly paid and most mobile in nature .
(ii)The quinary sector shows an important stage of development in the hierarchy of economic activity.
(iii)It needed for self actualization, which is not motivated by wealth and security alone.
(iv)The quinary activity predominately have a value system ,which laid stress on quality of life , have faith in creativity and individual values like honesty and hard work with efficiency.

Q.13. Explain any six features of “Indian Railways”.
Ans. The six features of “Indian Railways” are:
(i)Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers.
(ii)Railways are most convenient for the transportation of heavy and bulky goods.
(iii)Railways make it possible to conduct multifarious activities like business, sight seeing, pilgrimage, etc.
(iv)Railways also accelerate the development of agriculture and industry.
(v)The railways have been great integrating force more than 150 years.
(vi)The introduction of fast electric engines, computerised reservation system, air condition coaches and better catering facilities makes rail transport comfortable.

Q.14. Define the term ‘foraging*. Write any four characterstics.
Ans. Foraging. The subsistence of people based on hunting of animals and gathering of wild plant foods and fishing without domestication of plants and animals is said to be foraging.
•The characteristics of foraging.
•The early humans led a simple though very arduous life. .
•The needs were limited and only confined to food and clothes than shelter.
•They moved from one place to another in search of food and water.
•They hunted animals and gathered fruits, nuts, roots, stems, leaves of edible plant to satisfy their hunger.

Q.15. Describe any five major problems of Indian agriculture?
Ans. Agriculture is the main occupation of people of India. It is the source of living for about 70% of its working population. It is the base of Indian economy. Despite its dominant role, agriculture has not been able to provide the basic needs of the country. Our agriculture has failed to meet the food grains requirements of the country.
The five major problems associated with the Indian agriculture are as follows :
(i)Pressure of Population on Land : Due to continuous increase in population, pressure of population on land is increasing. Due to overcrowding, the per capita cultivated land in India has been reduced to only 0.3 hectares. It has resulted in shortage of food grains.
The growth rate in agriculture is also low.
(ii)Inadequate Irrigation Facilities : In India, agriculture depends on monsoonal rainfall.
Due to uncertain and variable rainfall irrigation is necessary. Only 22% of cultivated land is irrigated. It is necessary to irrigate at least 50% of the cultivated land to make it a success. Moreover, irrigation is required to increase the yield productivity and the intensity of cropping to check the severe draught.
(iii)Low Productivity: In India, the yield per hectare of food grains and other crops is low as compared to other countries of the world. High yielding varieties have been introduced. But only 16% of the cultivated land is under high yielding varieties.
(iv)Poor Techniques of Production: Due to continuous agriculture over a long period, the fertility of soils is declining. To maintain its fertility, the use of chemical fertilisers is necessary. Indian farmers have been using old and inefficient methods due to which there is low productivity . Use of better quality seeds and pesticides can increase the – productivity.
(v)Lack of Mechanised Farming : Agriculture is mostiy intensive. Human labour is used to get maximum output. Use of modern machines is limited due to low purchasing power of farmers. The government has been taking somfe steps to remove the drawbacks of the agriculture. A new strategy has been adopted to bring many improvements in the economic, technical and organisational form of the agriculture in India.

Q.16. Why is human development necessary in India? Explain any five reasons.
Ans. Human development is necessary because :
•Better living conditions are provided to the aspiring people and have the wide range cf opportunities to choose for the enrichment of their life and to enjoy freedom.
•The main aim of ‘Human Development’ is to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor. It gives healthy civil society and attains social stability.
•Human development reduces enimity with each other, it increases awareness promotes peace as communal riots, crimes etc., are reduced in the society. It provides a strong platform to the government.
•As the human development takes place, people are given wider choices, and helpful in alleviating poverty. People check desertification, deforestation and soil erosion which they were doing earlier to earn their livelihood because human development is eco-friendly also.
•Human development helps in attaining higher productivity. When people live healthy well nourished life and are highly educated and skilled in varied technologies, they become the most important assets to attain productivity. So unless their health, education and training is taken care the productivity cannot be attained or in other words we can say that development cannot be attained.

Q.17. Describe any five characteristics of “Gujarat Industrial Region”.
Ans. The five features of the following industrial regions are :
‘Gujarat Industrial Region’
(i)The nucleus of this region lies between Ahmedabad and Vadodara, though this region extends upto Valsad and Surat in the South.
(ii)The development of this industrial region is mainly due to the location of the cotton, textile industry since 1860s.
(iii)After the decline of cotton textile from the Mumbai region, the region has double proximity of raw material and market.
(iv)The’discovery of oil fieldsTecftoThe development of a variety of petrochemical industries in Ankleshwar, Vadodara, and Jamnagar.
(v)Petroleum refinery at Koyali provided raw materials to a host of petrochemical industries

Q.18. Explain any five factors affecting the location of rural settlement in the world
Ans. Rural settlements are closely related to land, water supply, upland or highland, building
material and defence etc. The factors that influenced rural settlements are as follows:
(i)Water Supply : Rural settlements are located near water bodies such as rivers, lakes, springs and tanks, where water resource is easily accessible Sometimes the need for water drives people to settle in otherwise disadvantage sites such as islands surrounded by swamps or low lying river banks. Water is the main basic need of human society. Hence ‘wet points’ greatly influence rural settlements.
(ii)Land: Fertile land is a major factor for rural settlements. The rural inhabitants are mainly confined to primary activities i.e., agriculture. In southern Asia, rural settlements are highly con-centrated near river valleys and coastal plains.
(iii)Upland : High elevated landmass, which are free from the common occurrence of flood. Thus main concentration of rural settlements are terraces and levees which are said to be dry points.
(iv)Building Materials : The easy availability of building materials-wood, stone near settlements is a boon. The primitive societies built their houses near forests, where wood was plentiful. Eskimos, in the polar areas use ice blocs to construct their house igloos.
(v)Defence: In earlier times, there was political instability and war hostility of neighbouring groups, villages were built on defensive hills and islands. The settlement of Jaiselmer is greatly influenced by the invasion of various warrior groups.

Q.19. Name the two major fibre crops of India. Write four characteristics of each crop.
Ans. Cotton and Jute are the two fibre crops of India.
Four characteristics of Jute :
(i)Jute is used in the manufacture of wrapping canvas, bags, ropes, mats, etc.
(ii)It requires hot and humid climate with well drained deep clayey alluvial soil.
(iii)It is also stated as golden fibre and require abundant sun-shine at the time of growing
(iv)Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya are the chief producing state.
Four characteristics of Cotton :
(i)Cotton is one of the main raw materials for the cotton textile industry
(ii)India is the third largest producer of cotton in the world.
(iii)It grows in the well drier parts of the black soil region of the Deccan Plateau.
(iv)It requires high temperature, light rainfall (less than 150 cm) and 210 frost free days and bright shine for its growth.
(v)Maharashtra, Gujarat, Southern Madhya Pradesh, Northern Karnataka and Western AndhraPradesh are the chief cotton producing states. (any four)

Q.20. Define the term ‘Migration of population’. Describe four trends of migration on the
basis of direction of movements in India.
Ans. Migration of Population. Migration of population refers to the movement of population
from the place of origin to the place of destination, migration may be external and Internal,
temporal and permanent.
The four direction of movement in India are described as follows :
•Rural to Rural
•Rural to Urban
•Urban to Rural
•Urban to Urban
•Rural to Rural migration. According to the Census 1991, the inmigrants whose place of last residence and the place of enumeration West Bengal tops in total number of rural migration. The rural to rural migration is the most visible stream of migration and dominated by females.
•Rural to Urban Migration. It is mainly dominated by the males and the economic factor is responsible for it. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh have the maximum rural to urban migration. Tripura records the minimum.
•Urban to Urban Migration. This stream of migration accounts to 31.60 per cent, better employment prospects and better living conditions influence this migration. Industrial development, transport facilities, trade and commerce, administrative and liberal services are deprived in class II and III towns but are available in class I towns.
•Urban to Rural Migration. This stream of migration is considerably low due to the ab-sence of any significant pull factors.

Q.21. On the given outline map of the World, following five features are shown. Identify
these features and write their correct names on the lines marked near each feature.
(i)Country having the highest population
(ii)Mega city of Pakistan
(iii)An area of subsistence farming
(iv)A major sea port of Australia
(v)Terminal station of Trans -Australian Railway.
Ans. (i) Nigeria (ii) Karachi (iii) Indonesia (iv) Sydney (v) Kalgoorlie

Q.22. On the given outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:
(i)Metropolitan city of Rajasthan
(ii)State having the lowest road density
(iii)State having the Highest of Population below poverty line.
(iv)Software technologhy park located in Jammu and Kashmir
(v)Smallest state in Area