CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper With Solutions Set 2

[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.]                                                                                              [Max. Marks : 70]
Questions 1-7 (1 Mark), 8-13 (3 Marks), 14-20 (5 Marks), 21 and 22 (Map Question-5 Marks each)

Q.1.Name two types of rural settlements found in India.
Ans. The two main types of rural settlements found in India are:
(i)Clustered – agglomerated or nucleated.
(ii)Semi – Clustered or fragmented

Q.2.Define the term ‘quaternary activity’.
Ans.Quaternary activities are developed from of services, with specific knowledge, technical skills, competence of communication or administration.

Q.3. Name four main components of human development.
Ans. Equality, sustainability, productivity and empowerment are the four main components of human development.

Q.4 Name the largest sugar producing state of India?
Ans. Uttar Pradesh is the largest sugar producing state of India.

Q.5. Which country is the largest trading partner of India?
Ans. U.S.A. is India’s largest trading partner.

Q.6. Name the iron and steel plant located in Chhattisgarh.
Ans. The Bhilai Iron and Steel Plant is located in Chhattisgarh.

Q.7. What is the main reason of degradation of the quality of water in India?
Ans. Disposal of industries effluents and indiscriminate use of water by growing population are the main reasons of degradation of the quality of water in India.

Q.8. Explain the concept of environment determination with suitable examples.
Ans. Environmental determination focuses on inter-relationship between man and environment. According to this thought man is slave of his environment. All the activities of the human beings are determined by the environmental controls. The German School of Geographers is a staunch supporter of determinism. The main features of determinism are:
•Environment provides certain forms to human society, his needs of food, shelter, dress, lifestyle, settlement, pattern, etc., and are determined by the environment.
•The’ aborigines and ethnic racial groups everywhere in the world are slaves of the environment.

Q.9. Explain the features of ‘Basic Need Approach’ to human development in the world.
Ans. The main features of the Basic Need Approach are:
(i)The “Basic Need Approach” is mainly proposed by the International Labour Organization (ILO).
(ii)The six basic needs: health, education, food, water supply, sanitation and housing are identified by the ILO, as these components are the basic requirements of life.
(iii)This approach is confined on the need to provide to all human beings the opportunities for a ‘richer and more varied life’, which is one of the main approach.

Q.10.Ramesh has been working on contract as a welder on a construction site in Talcher (coal region of Odisha) for the last two years. He moved with the contractor to various places like Surat, Mumbai, Gandhi Nagar, Bharuch, Jamnagar and so on. He remits Rs. 20,000 per year to his father in his native village. The remittances have been mainly used for daily consumption, health care, schooling of children, etc. Part of the money is also used in agriculture, purchasing of land and building of houses, etc. The standard of living of Ramesh’s family improved significantly.(Value Based Question)
Read the above paragraph and analyse the following :
(i)How much money does Ramesh remit to his father in his native village ?
(ii)What kind of value does it show ?
(iii)What kind of activities are done through the remittance ?
Ans. (i) Ramesh remits ‘ 20, 000 per year to his father in his native village.
(ii)It shows the great concern Ramesh has for his father.
(iii)Through the remittance Ramesh’s father purchases health care facilities, provides schooling for his children, purchases land and also uses it for the construction of his house.

Q.11.How do population factors affect the type and volume of goods traded between countries? Explain with examples.
Ans. The population factors affect the type and volume of goods traded between the countries in the following ways:
(i)The densely populated countries don’t have large volume of International trade, though these countries have comparatively well developed internal trade.
(ii)The local or internal market does not leave any surplus agricultural and industrial produce for export.
(iii)The low standard of living may not allow the people to buy costly imported goods and put their country into negative balance of trade.

Q.12. Mention any three characteristics of semi-clustered rural settlements of India.
Ans. The three characteristics of semi-clustered rural settlements of India are:
(i)The semi-clustered settlements may result either from agglomeration tendency in a restricted area of dispersed settlement.
(ii)In this type of settlement one or more sections of the village society choose to live a little away from the main cluster.
(iii)The land owners and the higher caste people live in the nucleus of the village whereas the lower caste people live in the outer periphery of the village.

Q.13.Why the measure of population control is need of an hour? Mention the measures through which population can be controlled.
Ans. The population control is the one of the most important strategy to curb the high birth rate, because the population growth is the rate of geometric progression but the resources are growing at the arithmetic progression. Through the following measures population can be controlled:
•Improvement in the female health and education.
•Government involvement through the free availability of the contraceptives.
•The imposition of taxes and disincentives to the large size families.

Q.14. Describe any five factors that have influenced industrial location in the world.
Ans. Following factors favour the localization of an industry:
•Nearness of Raw Material: The heavy and basic industries are mainly located near the source of raw material, as the raw material is the soul of the industries. They are established in the area surrounding the raw material to minimize transport cost. The sugar industries are located near the raw material, as sugarcane is a perishable product and delays in its transportation affect the production. The heavy raw material based industries are found generally near the availability of the raw material, like iron and steel industries are located in the Jamshedpur and Bhillai. The paper pulp industries and saw mills are located in the coniferous forest region due to easy availability of the raw material.
•Power Resources: Coal, petroleum and hydro-electricity are the chief sources of power. The heavy industries need power in abundance. These industries are generally localized near the areas where power is easily available. The Damodar Valley in India and the Rhur Valley in Germany is the main industrial centre due to coal and hydro-electric power. The iron and the steel industry, fertilizers, aluminum and copper smelting are power intensive industries , hence located hear the sources of power.
•Means of Transport: The means of transport are the ‘arteries and veins’ of industries, as these connect the producer to consumer. Hence industries are set up in those places which are endowed with cheap, quick and abundant means of transport.
•Suitable Climatic Condition: Climate plays an important role in the establishment of industries. The cold climate affects the health and ultimately the efficiency of work and the damp climate is helpful to the cotton textile industry. The dry atmospheric conditions are helpful for the aircraft industry.
•Abundant and Cheap Labour Force: The skill and technique of manufacturing something is very essential. The skilled labour and technique of appliances increases the quality and quantity of production. The manufacturing of watches in Switzerland, toys and electronics in Japan, glasswork in Ferozabad and textile in Lancashire are famous due to skilled and specialized labour force.

Q.15. Which is the busiest sea route in the world? Describe four of its characteristics.
Ans. The North- Atlantic sea route is one of the busiest routes in the world, as it connects the world’s two most developed regions, the eastern part of Canada and the USA to western Europe in the west.
The four features of the North-Atlantic sea route are:
•Both the coasts have good port and harbour facilities.
•Foreign trade over this sea-route is greater than that of rest of the world.
•About one-fourth of the world’s foreign trade moves on this route.
•Due to its business it is called as a ‘Big trunk route’. It serves more countries and people than any other route.

Q. 16. Explain any five major environmental problems related to urban settlements in developing countries.
Ans. The five major environmental problems related to urban settlement in developing countries are as follows:
(i)Huge disposal of waste products by the urban population, mainly in Asian and African countries detoriate the environment.
(ii)Disposal of wastes products into the water also create acute scarcity of potable water.
(iii)Mass use of non -commercial fuels in the domestic sector creates acute scarcity of potable water.
(iv)The open disposal of industrial wastes without any treatment makes surrounding stinky.
(v)Disposal of waste leads to soil infertility.

Q.17. How many linguistic families are there in India? Describe them along with the areas where they are mainly spoken.
Ans. There are four language families in India:
•Austric language family: The Austric language is spoken by 1.38% of the total population of India. Austric is tribal language spoken mainly by the tribal groups of Khasi and Jaintia hills of Meghalaya, Nicobari language is spoken by the people of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Santhal language is spoken by the Santhal tribe of Jharkhand.
•Sino-Tibetan Language: Speakers of these languages inhabit the Himalayan and the north-eastern region. These regions are adjacent to Tibet. Tibetan, Batti, Ladakhi, Lahauli and Sikkim Bhutia are the main languages of this group. The main languages of the north -east regions are Miri, Mishmi, Bodo, Naga ,Aka ,Dafla and Abor. Manipuri language is included in the eighth scheduled of our language. Sino-Tibetan language is spoken by 0.85% population of India.
•Dravidian languages: Dravidian language has basically originated from Sanskrit and is phonetically alike. It is spoken by 20% of total population of our country. The major languages are Kannada (Karnataka), Tamil (Tamil Nadu), Telugu (Andhra Pradesh) and Malayalam (Kerala). About 96% of the Dravidian speakers speak one of these four languages. Tulu, Yerukula , Gondi, Kui and Paryi languages come under Dravidian languages
•Indo-European Languages: These languages are spoken by 73 % of the total population of India. Hindi, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kohistini, Sindhi, Dardic, Marathi, Punjabi, Gujarati, Bengali, Nepali, Oriya and Assamese are principle languages of Indo-European family. Maithili, Valjjika, Bhojpuri, Avadhi, Mewari, Brij Bhasa and Baghaili are the important dialects spoken mainly in Hindi speaking states U.P, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.

Q.18. How the small size of land holdings and degradation of cultivable land are the two major problems of Indian agriculture? Explain both these problems with example.
Ans. The small size of land holdings and degradation of cultivable land are the major twin problems of Indian agriculture:
A.Small size of land holdings:
(i)The increasing population pressure and the law of inheritance continuously promoting the small size of land holdings. .
(ii)In 1961-1962, 52% of the total holdings were marginal and small size (below-2 hectare in size). In 1990 – 1991, the percentage of total small size land holdings reached to 78%.
(iii)The small size land holding are uneconomic and less productive because its small size is a great obstacle in the way of modernization.
B. Degradation’of cultivable land:
(i)The excessive use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides not only degrades the cultivable land, but also the nutritious contents of the crop.
(ii)Salinity and Alkalinity have almost affected 8 million hectare of land due to waterlogging.

Q.19. Describe five points about the watershed development and managements programmes initiated by the Central and State governments of India.
Ans. The main approach of the watershed development and management programmes initiated by the Central and State governments is to conserve water resources to increase agricultural production and check ecological degradation in the rain fed areas and resource deficient (water) areas.
(i)’Haryali’ a watershed development project is initiated by the central government to enable rural population to conserve water and generate self employment opportunities, to be administrated by Gram Panchayat.
(ii)’Verru-Merru’ programme sponsored by NGO in Andhra Pradesh.
(iii)Arvary Pani Sansad have been taken up by the people of Alwar district of Rajasthan to construct various rainwater harvesting structure.
(iv)Watershed development programmes taken up by the community participation in Ralegan Siddhi, Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra.
(v)Tamil Nadu, the only state in India, has made rain water harvesting compulsory.

Q.20. Describe any five features of changing patterns of the India’s import.
Ans. The main features of changing patterns of the India’s import are:
(i)Food grains were the major item of import during 1950s and 1960s.
(ii)The-import of food grains was discontinued after 1970s as the country became self-reliant in food grains.
(iii)Fertilizers, Pesticides and Petroleum dominated our imports.
(iv)Machinery and equipment, special steel, edible oil and chemical became major items for import.
(v)Capital goods, like transport equipments, also became the major items for import.

Q.21. On the given political outline map of the world, following five features are shown. Identify these features and write their correct names on the lines marked near each f feature.
(i)A Mega city.
(ii)A major sea-port.
(iii) A country having the largest area in Africa.
(iv) The highest HDI ranking country in the world.
(v) Terminal of Trans-Siberian railway.
Ans.(i)Shanghai (ii)Cope Town (iii)Sudan (iv)Norway (v)Moscow

Q.22. On the given Outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:
(i)Metropolitarmty of Rajasthan.
(ii)An oil refinery in Haryana. .
(iii)An international airport in North-East India.
(iv)Malayalam speaking state.
(v)State with lowest sex ratio.