CBSE  Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 5 Children and Sports

1 Mark Questions
Question.1. Define motor development.
Answer. It refers to the development of general body control, fine motor skills and large muscle movements.

Question.2. How many stages of motor development are there in children?
Answer. There are three stages of motor development in children as given below:
infancy or infancyood —> early childhood —> later childhood

Question.3. What are the types of motor skills?
Answer. There are two types of motor skills:

  1. Gross motor skills
  2.  Fine motor skills

Question.4. Write two benefits of regular exercise.
Answer. Benefits of regular exercise are:

  1. Improves blood circulation, which reduces the risk of heart diseases.
  2. Improves physical wellness.

Question.5. Enlist a few disadvantages of food supplements.
Answer. Some disadvantages of food supplements are:

  1. liver damage
  2. blurred vision
  3. headache
  4.  bone pain
  5.  swelling, drowsiness and nausea

3 Marks Questions
Question.6. What types of body movements does an infant start in the early stages of life?
Answer. Some of the body movements started by the infant are :

  1. Arm extended in front of eyes on the side to which the head is turned, other arm flexed.
  2.  Lifts one foot after another in stepping response.
  3.  Spontaneous grasp of adult’s finger.
  4.  Lifts self by arms when prone.
  5. Rolls from side to back.
  6.  Crawls.

Question.7. Enlist the basic movements of early childhood in a baby.
Answer. This period is also known as preschool age and the movements during this period are :

  1.  Ball handling.
  2.  Fine eye-hand coordination.
  3.  Walking leading to running.
  4. Good control over running.
  5. Climbing proficiency using ladders.

Question.8. Can endurance influence motor development of children?
Answer. Yes, endurance influences motor development of children. Endurance is the ability to maintain the exertion required for an activity. A child with poor endurance might be able to step up one stair but not climb a flight of stairs. Endurance involves many factors such as muscle tone and strength, heart and lung function and motivation.

Question.9. Define food supplements.
Answer. Food supplements, also known as dietary supplements, are meant to improve your diet by providing vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes and other beneficial substances in the form of capsules, soft gels, caps and tablets.

Question.10. How can exercise reduce blood sugar levels?
Answer. Exercise reduces blood sugar levels by preventing sugar from accumulating in the blood by triggering muscles to take up more glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy. This can reduce a person’s risk of developing diabetes.

Question.11. Define motor development in 6-12 year old children.
Answer. After the age of 6 years, it becomes increasingly difficult to describe changes and differences in motor skills development of a child. The following characteristics are evident:

  1.  Changes are more subtle and are often to fine motor skills only.
  2.  By the age of one year, eye-hand coordination has developed to being very good.
  3. Growth is relatively slow.
  4.  This stage is terminated by the onset of puberty.
  5.  Motor skills are perfected and stabilized.
  6.  Links can be made to physical developments.

The following are assessed during this stage:

  1.  Running This will become faster depending on the length of stride and tempo.
  2.  Jumping The ability to jump higher will become greater due to body size, weight, age and strength.
  3. Throwing Boys begin to throw further with a better technique and accuracy.
  4. Balancing and Coordination This increases as the child becomes older and control is : perfected.

Question.12. How can the minimum muscular strength for children be assessed?
Answer. To assess minimum muscular strength for children between 9 and 12 years of age (older pediatric age group) we can use Kraus-Weber Tests. These tests don’t require sophisticated equipment and are much easier to administer than traditional tools for analyzing muscular fitness like Electromyogram (EMG).

Question.13. How does exercise control weight and strengthen bones?
Answer. Regular exercise controls weight by burning the excess calories gained by consuming food. Exercise takes the fat away and removes the excess weight. Exercise also strengthens bones by increasing the bone density, making them stronger. Lack of exercise causes bones to lower their density, becoming weak, fragile and porous.

Question.14. Elaborate on the disadvantages of food supplements.
Answer. Food supplements should be taken only when there is a lack of a proper nutritious diet. If they are not required, taking them may be harmful. For instance, vitamin E supplement causes increase in prostate cancer in males, calcium supplement results in greater risk of heart attacks etc.

Question.15. Explain the disadvantages of unsupervised weight training.
Answer. While performing unsupervised weight training, there is a risk of getting injured if you are notable to perform the required number of repetitions, but keep on trying. If flexibility exercises are not carried on simultaneously with weight training, it will reduce the flexibility of your body also.

5 Marks Questions
Question.16. Elaborate about the motor development stages in children.
Answer. There are three stages of motor development in children

  1. Infanthood or Infancy (0 to 2 years) The child learns new motor skills. For instance, the stepping reflex promotes development of areas of the cortex that govern voluntary walking.
  2. Early Childhood (2 to 6 years) The period of the most rapid development of motor behaviours is the period between 2 and 6 years. Skills that appear are basic locomotor, ball-handling, fine eye-hand coordination, walking leading to running, jumping, hopping, galloping and skipping as well as climbing.
  3.  Later Childhood (6 to 12 years) After the age of 6 years, all motor skills developed in the earlier stages are enhanced. Differences in gender also come into play at this stage.

Question.17. Describe the types of motor skills. What are the factors affecting motor development in children?
Answer. The types of motor skills are motor control of the body starting from the head down to the legs and motor control of the body starting from the centre of the body outward. This means that the head, trunk and arm control are mastered before the coordination of the hands and fingers. Then the child is able to explore its environment further by grasping things, turning them over, and seeing what happens when they are released. These are called fine motor skills.
The factors affecting motor development in children are

  1. Biological
  2.  Environmental
  3.  Nutrition related
  4. Physical activity related
  5. Opportunity related
  6.  Sensory impairments related
  7.  Postural deformities related
  8.  Obesity related

Question.18. Explain the physical and physiological benefits of exercise on children.
Answer. Physical and physiological benefits of exercise on children are:

  1. Regular exercise helps in controlling weight by burning excess fat.
  2.  Exercise strengthens bones by increasing their density, thus preventing them from becoming porous and weak.
  3.  Exercise enhances lung capacity and efficiency in inhalation and exhalation.
  4.  Exercise changes the structure of the brain by sensory stimulation.
  5.  Exercise improves the performance and efficiency of the heart.
  6.  Exercise boosts the energy level by delivering more oxygen and nutrients to body tissues.
  7.  Exercise reduces blood sugar level by taking up more glucose from the blood for energy.
  8.  Exercise builds strong and healthy muscles.
  9. Exercise helps in faster motor development in children.
  10.  Exercise helps in absorbing food more efficiently, thus improving the digestive process.
  11.  Exercise improves neuromuscular coordination.
  12.  Exercise helps us in staying healthy overall.

Question.19. Suggest at what age children should be exposed to weight training. Justify your answer.
Answer. Children may be exposed to weight training not earlier than 12 years, as development of gross and fine motor skills occurs till this age and weight training should be started only after the motor skills are fully developed. Even after 12 years age, weight training by adolescents must be supervised by an experienced coach, as the children must learn the correct techniques and procedures, as many injuries occur when children compete with one another in lifting more weight. Recent research has indicated that adolescents can gain strength by weight training.

Question.20. What is the role of physical activities in improving the quality of life?
Answer. Physical activities include activities such as running, walking, jumping, cycling, playing games and sports etc. Quality of life means how we live our lives and our health condition. Physical activities have an important role in improving the quality of life through the following means .

  1. Improving the health of the heart by improving the balance of cholesterol in our bodies and lowering the blood pressure.
  2.  Improving mental health by relieving anxiety, stress, tension, anger and depression.
  3.  Controlling the weight by burning calories.
  4.  Preventing bone and joint problems by increasing bone density and raising the capacity of joints to bear weight.
  5. Reducing the chances of diabetes and cancer.
  6. Prolonging optimal health and reducing risk of an early death.

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