CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 11 Psychology and Sports
1 Mark Questions
Question.1. What is anxiety? [CBSE2013]
Answer. Anxiety is a disturbed state of the body or an unrealistic and unpleasant state of body and mind. It,is accompanied by nervousness, restlessness, increased heart rate, sweating, drying of the mouth, apprehension of danger, fear and rapid shallow breathing.
Question.2. What is ethics in sports?
Answer. Ethics is a branch or subdiscipline of philosophy called axiology, the study of values. Ethics in sports means to have an ideal conduct and knowledge of good and evil and what should be done and not to be done by a person.
Ethical behaviour in sports includes:
- good character
- fair play
- cooperative and self- disciplined behaviour
Question.3. What is sports psychology?
Define sports psychology.
Answer. Sports psychology is the branch of applied psychology which deals with sports performance and the behaviour of a player during training/competitions.
Question.4.What is motivation?
Answer.Motivation means to be inspired to do something. It is a kind of inner force which energises a person to make constant effort.
Question.5.What are the types of motivation?
Answer.(i) Internal or natural (intrinsic) motivation.
(ii) External or artificial (extrinsic) motivation
Question.6.Define anxiety in one sentence.
Answer.Anxiety is a chronic fear that limits our ability to carry out normal functions.
Question.7.What is intrinsic motivation?
Answer.This motivation is within an individual and guides him to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social needs etc.
Question.8.What are the causes and symptoms of anxiety in sports?
- Brain chemistry
- Environmental factors
- Feeling restlessness
- Muscular tension
- Increased BP
Question.9.How extrinsic motivation may sometimes kill intrinsic motivation?
Answer.Extrinsic motivation may kill intrinsic motivation sometimes because the physical appearance of something has more influence on the mind of an athlete.
Question.10.What do you understand by self-esteem?
Answer.Self-esteem means how you value and respect yourself as a person. It is the real opinion you have of yourself. It impacts how you take care of yourself physically, emotionally and spiritually.
3 Marks Questions
Question.11. Explain any three causes of anxiety.
Answer. The various causes of anxiety are (any three):
- Uncertainty about Result Competitions provide challenge and stimulation. It is in the field of unpredictability. The outcome is not known. One is under pressure for one’s achievements.
- Level of Competition The more important the contest, the greater is the stress or level of anxiety for that particular competition.
- Expectations of Spectators The spectators have a huge role or impact on how athletes feel. The expectations are more when it is a home venue.
- Possibility of Getting Hurt This can be a source of anxiety, especially in games like boxing, martial arts, gymnastics etc because the chances of injury are more.
- Expectations of Success Some athletes take up the challenge and are psyched up to perform better and get success, whereas some are not coming upto the expectations and are psyched-out, which causes failure.
Question.12. Explain goal setting as a technique of motivation in brief. [CBSE 2012]
Answer. Goal setting technique is one of the most important techniques of motivation. If you do not set a goal, you cannot achieve an apex position in life. A person should set goals according to one’s capabilities on a regular basis. Coaches should not be too rigid while setting goals for a sportsperson. There should be some flexibility in their approach.
Question.13. Explain two techniques of motivation.
Answer. Two techniques of motivation are:
- Goal Setting Sportsmen should be encouraged to set a few ambitious but achievable long-term as well as medium-term goals, e.g. if a person wants to get a good position or a medal in Olympic Games, he should also set the goals for getting a position in Asian or National Games.
- Elaborate Arrangement of Competition Sports persons perform better in competitions if there are elaborate arrangements of competition. However, an inexperienced sportsperson may not be able to put up a good show.
Question.14. What is the importance of sports psychology?
Answer. The importance of sports psychology can be understood from the following points:
- It analyses the behaviour of sportsmen.
- It identifies talent for specific sports.
- It creates a better learning situation.
- It stabilises the performance of a sportsperson for a longer period.
- It is important from the research point of view.
- It encourages the players to perform better.
Question.15. Explain any three techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports.
Answer.Techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports are
- Healthy Sports Environment A healthy sports environment plays a vital role in motivating the sportsperson. Healthy sport environment consists of proper humidity and temperature, smooth and clean sports fields, good quality of sports equipment and other facilities. .
- Positive Attitude For proper motivation, the coaches should try to encourage positive attitude among sportspersons. Players must think positively.
- Cash Prizes, Certificates and Trophies These are good incentives to sportspersons. Governments offer cash prizes to sportspersons who win.
Question.16. What is the role of anxiety in sports?
Answer. Anxiety plays an important role in sports. It is an essential ingredient of any competitive situation. Anxiety levels differ from athlete to athlete and from situation to situation. Athletes learn how to cope with stressful and competitive situations and manage anxiety with or assistance from a coach, otherwise they would not be able to give outstanding performances.
Question.17. How can you manage anxiety in sports?
Answer. Anxiety can be managed by:
- Keeping cool
- Yogic meditation
- Following a behaviour modification strategy
- Progressive relaxation breathing technique
- Somatic adjustment (control of cognitive processes)
- Guidance from a technically trained sports psychologist
Question.18. What are general sports ethics?
Answer. Sports ethics means the code of conduct of players, coaches, supervisors and administrators of various organisations. Ethics such as honesty, fairplay, obedience of rules, discipline and many moral behaviours are developed through participation.
Some common ethics related to sports are:
- Winning and losing gracefully.
- Getting recognition, name and fame without using unfair means.
- Loyalty towards his/her team, game, institution or country.
Question.19. What principles should be followed for goal setting?
Answer. Principles to be followed for goal setting are:
- Make goals specific, measurable, and observable.
- Clearly identify time constraints.
- Use moderately difficult goals; they are superior to either easy or very difficult goals.
- Write goals down and regularly monitor progress.
- Use a mix of process, performance, and outcome goals.
- Use short range goals to achieve long range goals.
- Set team as well as individual performance goals.
- Set practice as well as competition goals.
- Make sure goals are internalised by the athlete.
- Consider personality and individual differences in goal setting.
Question.20. Explain any two techniques to manage stress.
Answer. Two techniques to manage stress are:
- Participation in Physical Activities Physical exercises of moderate to high intensity, like aerobic exercises, are one of the”best methods to relieve stress. Physically fit persons are more resistant to the effects of stress than others.
- Achieve a High Level of Physical Fitness Achieving fitness is important to manage stress advantageously, while not eliminating it totally. Too little or too severe stress both lower performance in sports.
5 Marks Questions
Question.21. Define sports psychology and elucidate its importance in the field of sports.
Answer. Sports psychology is the branch of applied psychology which deals with sports performance and the behaviour of a player during training or competitions.
Importance of Sports Psychology is due to :
- Learning of Motor Skills Sports psychology plays a major role in the learning of motor skills. Motor ; skills learning depends on the dividual’s level of readiness.
- Analysing the Behaviour of Sportsmen Performance of a player depends upon the behaviours which are influenced by various factors such as sex differences, family conditions, personal background, heredity, growth, physical and mental maturity levels etc.
- Identifying Talent for Specific Sports Every sports has specific psychological demands, e.g. boxing requires more aggressiveness, whereas archery and shooting require more concentration.
- Stabilising the Performance for Longer Period It helps in stabilising the performance of a player for a longer period. Then the performance of the player largely depends upon his psychological make up and anxiety level.
- Important from Research Point of View Sports psychologists works in very close proximity to coaches to uplift the performance of players. Research findings help in promotion of sports and games.
- Encouraging the Players to Make a Comeback in Professional Sports Sports psychology encourages the players, who, due to injury or some accident, are forced to take a long break from their professional career, to return to their sport.
Question.22. What is motivation? Explain different types of motivation.
Answer. Motivation means to be inspired to do something. It is a kind of inner force which energises a man to make constant effort.
According to Crook and Stein, “Motivation is any condition that might energise and direct our action.”
Types of Motivation
There are two types of motivation:
- Intrinsic Motivation This motivation is within an individual and guides him/her to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social need etc. It also depends upon knowledge of result, personal factor, competition zeal etc. He/she participates in sports for his/her own sake.
- Extrinsic Motivation This motivation depends upon environmental factors. It has a great impact on an individual’s performance. It is of various types like rewards, punishment, active participation, test evaluation, teaching methods, equipment and surroundings etc.
Question.23. Participation in sport results in all-round development of personality. Justify.
Answer. Games and sports are essential for the all- round development of personality. It is by participating in games and sports that we can develop and maintain our health, keep our body alert, active, youthful and energetic. Participation increases blood circulation and we get an increased supply of oxygen. This makes a person healthier. Only a healthy person can work long, hard and cheerfully. An unhealthy person may not take as much interest in work.
Games and sports have additional benefits to exercise as they are played in groups and in a healthy competitive spirit. Among many other things, they help develop cooperation, quality of leadership, team spirit and a willingness to submit to, and further, the rule of law. Games instil in participants the spirit of self-reliance, justice, fair play and sporting spirit. They make people bold, adventurous, social, disciplined and more conscious of their responsibilities towards society and the nation. People participating regularly in games and sports have been found better equipped to fight superstitions, communalism, obscurantism and a narrow approach to issues of national interest.
Games also help in overcoming feelings of violence, arrogance and superiority as these are purged by providing them a sufficient outlet through them. A sports person may not lose his or her temper and morale even in the face of defeat because he/ she would take it coolly, calmly and then would try to perform better the next time. Players know that victory and defeat are two aspects of the same coin. There is more joy in playing than in its end result. Thus, participation in sport results in all-round development of personality.