CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 9 Sports Medicine

1 Mark Questions
Question.1. Define sports medicine.
Answer. Sports medicine is a branch of healthcare. It deals with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of injuries related to participation in sports and /or exercise.

Question.2. What are acute injuries?
Answer. Acute injuries are the injuries that occur due to sudden trauma to the tissue. The symptoms of acute injuries present themselves almost immediately. For example sprains, fracture etc.

Question.3. What is/are the important objectives of sports medicine?
Answer. The three important objectives of sports medicine are:

  1. Scientific promotion of sports.
  2. Developing preventive healthcare.
  3. Providing sports medical extension services.

Question.4. What do you mean by RICER?
Answer. RICER is one of the standard treatment procedures for sports injuries. It stands for Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation and Referral.

Question.5. Distinguish between natural surface and artificial surface used in sports.

3 Marks Questions
Question.6. Explain briefly strain and sprain.
Answer. Strain and sprain are two common soft tissue injuries. Strain is caused due to tearing of muscle fibres with pain, swelling and loss of muscle strength. On the other hand, sprain is a partial or complete tear of a ligament with symptoms of pain, swelling, bruising, loss of function, and often an audible ‘popping sound.’

Question.7. How are sports injuries classified?
Answer. Sports injuries are classified in various ways. The classification can be based on the time taken for the tissues to become injured, the tissue type affected and severity of the injury.
These are detailed below:

  1. Classification based on time taken for the tissue to become injured
    (a) Acute injuries (b) Overuse injuries
  2.  Classification based on tissue type
    (a) Soft tissue injuries
    (b) Hard tissue injuries
    (c) Special tissue injuries
  3.  Classification based on severity affected
    (a) Mild injuries
    (b) Moderate injuries
    (c) Severe injuries

Question.8. Explain briefly the concept of sports medicine.
Answer. Sports medicine deals with injuries related to participation in sports or in exercise. It is not a single field of speciality. It is an area that involves healthcare professionals, researchers and educators from a wide variety of disciplines. Also, sports medicine requires the combination of medical knowledge with knowledge of a particular sport. It is not only curative and rehabilitative, but also preventive.

Question.9. Discuss the need for sports medicine in brief.
Answer. Sports medicine is one of the very important fields in professional sports. Sports injuries have great impact on the physiology and psychology of athletes. Also there is social and financial harm associated with them. Therefore sports medicine is needed to ensure overall development and growth of an athlete.

Question.10. What do you mean by environment in the context of sports?
Answer. Environment in the context of sports may be any indoor or outdoor condition that potentially impacts on performance. The environment in sports will include prevailing weather conditions as well as physical nature of the venue such as topography, altitude etc. Also it will include man-made factors such as pollution and traffic, which can impact cycling, or noise such as stadium noise.

Question.11. What is scope of sports medicine?
Answer. The scope of sports medicine is very wide. Other than the prevention and treatment of sports related injuries, sports medicine also looks at a diverse area. The scope of sports medicine involves issues related to women’s participation in sports. Also athletic nutrition, fitness and psychological aspects of sports performance are areas of concern for sports medicine.
Apart from these, sports medicine also deals with ageing and sports performance, illness caused by environmental, physiological and psychological disturbances. Adaptive physical training, conditioning exercises and use and abuse of drugs are also fields of study for sports medicine.

5 Marks Questions
Question.12. Discuss five techniques used to avoid sports injuries.
Answer. One of the important objectives of sports medicine is preventing injuries. It also prevents other physical, mental, social and financial harm accompanying sports injuries. General techniques that can prevent sports injuries are:

  1.  Warm-up and Cool-down A well structured warm-up and cool-down is necessary to increase blood and nutrient flow and concentration. Also it helps in relaxation, improved flexibility and recovery of muscles.
  2. Planning a Session Careful planning of training and rehabilitation sessions allows gradual specific adaptations. It reduces the damage to the tissues as a result of training.
  3.  Using Protective Equipment The use of protective equipment like proper footwear, helmets, goggles, gum shield, shin pads and gloves prevents many sports injuries.
  4.  Psychological training Some form of mental skills training and practice could reduce injuries by reducing anxiety and improving concentration.
  5. Adherence to the rules If all performers are aware of and adhere to the rules and laws of the particular sport, then injuries can be reduced to great extent.

Question.13. Write about standard techniques for minor sports injury management.
Answer. The standard techniques for sports injury management are TOTAPS, RICER and No-HARM techniques. These techniques are generally helpful for treating minor and non-serious injuries to soft tissues and to bones and joints. These techniques are essential for accurate assessment and quick recovery from injuries.
TOTAPS stand for Talk, Observe, Touch, Active movement, Passive movement and Skill test. It is helpful in assessing all non-serious injuries.
RICER is used to manage soft tissue injuries to reduce scarring and pain for faster recovery. RICER stands for Rest, ICE, Compression, Elevation and Referral. It should be used as a first aid technique. No-HARM or Avoid HARM technique stands for No-Heat, No-Alcohol, No-Running and No-Massage. These are important precautions that any injured athlete must take for the first 72 hours after an injury occurs.

Question.14. Distinguish between natural surface and artificial surface in sports and how they impact the performance of athletes.
Answer. There are two types of surfaces used in any indoor or outdoor games. These are natural and artificial surfaces. Natural surfaces are the surfaces that are prepared through proper combination of natural elements like soil and grass. On the other hand, artificial surfaces are more like carpets which are made from artificial components like rubber, synthetic fibre etc.
These surfaces impact performance of athletes differently. .In many contact games like football, cricket, running and Kabaddi natural surfaces are preferred because they provide more familiarity, grip and avoid severe injuries.
On the other hand, artificial surfaces provide more opportunities for practice because their use need not be stopped for maintenance. Also, with innovation in technology, artificial surfaces are becoming more user friendly. Risks of injuries are reducing in artificial surfaces also nowadays.

Question.15. What are the environmental factors that impact athletes? Explain any three.
Answer. Environmental factors in sports will include any indoor or outdoor conditions that potentially impact performance. Common environmental factors that influence performance of athletes are:

  1. Warm Weather Warm weather is often accompanied by high humidity. It is the most common adverse environmental factor encountered by athletes. Warm weather impacts hydration of body. Heat and humidity will increase the body’s production of sweat.
  2. High altitude High altitude is technically any altitude where oxygen is less than sea level. At higher altitudes the body is forced to produce more red blood cells to carry oxygen, which is available in less quantity. It affects peak performance of athletes.
  3. Crowd noise Crowd noise is the most important man-made factor which affects athlete performance. Because of high noise, athletes cannot concentrate and also teams cannot hear their own signals.

Question.16. Explain following sports injuries briefly.
1. Fracture      2.  Dislocation
3.Green stick     4. Stress fracture
5. Concussion

  1.  Fracture Fracture is a crack or full break in a bone or bones. It can be closed or open It has symptoms of intense pain, loss of function, swelling, bruising and possible deformity.
  2.  Dislocation Dislocation means partial or total separation of a joint. It most commonly affects ball and socket joints. It’s symptoms include pain, bruising, swelling, loss of function and deformity.
  3. Green Stick Green stick is a fracture in a young, soft bone. In green stick the bone bends and breaks. This fracture is very difficult to detect.
  4.  Stress Fracture Stress fracture is a micro fracture in bones. It occurs usually in the tibia. It leads to localised pain and tenderness.
  5.  Concussion Concussion is a head injury with a temporary loss of brain function. Concussion can cause a variety of physical, cognitive and emotional symptoms in athletes.

Question.17. What are the causes of sports injuries?
Answer. To effectively diagnose, rehabilitate and ultimately prevent subsequent injuries, a sport therapist should know the causes or mechanism of injury. Some common causes of sports injuries are

  1. Anatomical Factors These are related to make up of the body. Leg length differences and
    body misalignment can lead to unequal forces being transferred to the tissues. It can cause injuries to ankle, hip and back.
  2. Age related causes As the body ages, it changes. It is less able to produce force, recovers slower and soft tissues lose the ability to stretch. Therefore it is more prone to injury.
  3.  Training related causes Excessive repetitive loading of the tissues is needed for successive adaptation. However without suitable recovery, tissues never have the chance to adapt and can fail.
  4.  Equipment selection factors These are related to the suitability of equipment. An instance is incorrect footwear,-which will not protect the foot and ankle adequately. It also will not distribute forces effectively. Thus it increases the risk of injury.
  5.  Impact and contact causes Impact or contact can be with objects, surfaces or other people. These injuries are common in contact sports like football, rugby, hockey etc. Also they are common in more dangerous sports like motor racing, boxing and skiing.

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