## CBSE  Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 7 Test and Measurement in Sports

1 Mark Questions
Question.1. What is a test in sports?
Answer. In scientific terms, test means an instrument to be used for measuring anything. It may be running, walking etc. (for fitness testing)

Question.2. What is the meaning of the term ‘measurement’ in sports?
Answer. Measurement is a specific score given by an expert every time on applying a test. Each score tells about the use of a test once. Every time a test is used, it must have its score called measurement.

Question.3. Write the formula for calculating cardiovascular fitness in Rockport test.
Answer. The formula for calculating cardiovascular fitness is

Question.4. We generally use Harvard step test for cardiovascular fitness. In this test how do we calculate the physical efficiency index (PEI)?
Answer. In the Harvard step test for cardiovascular fitness, the physical efficiency index

Question.5. Name the tests which we use for cardiovascular fitness?
Answer. The tests which we use for cardiovascular fitness are Harvard step test and Rockport one mile test.

Question.6. Which motor quality does a senior citizen lack who finds difficulty in tying the shoe laces while sitting on a chair?
Answer. The senior citizen lacks lower body flexibility.

Question.7. Calculate the Physical Fitness Index for a 12 year old boy having completed Harvard step test for a duration of 3 min and a pulse rate of 54 beats for 1 to 1.5 min, 50 beats for 2 to 2.5 min and 46 beats for 3 to 3.5 min.

3 Marks Questions
Question.8. List the six items of â€˜AAHPER’ motor fitness test.
Answer. The six items of ‘AAHPER’ motor fitness test are

1. Pull-Ups for boys/Flexed arm hang for girls
2.  Flexed leg sit ups
3.  Shuttle run
4.  Standing long jump
5.  50 yard dash
6.  600 yard run-walk

Question.9. What parts of the body do each of the Kraus Weber tests of fitness test?
Answer. The Kraus Weber test consists of following six tests

• Test 1 tests the strength of the abdominal and psoas muscles.
• Test 2 tests the strength of the abdominal muscles.
• Test 3 tests the strength of the psoas muscles.
• Test 4 tests the strength of the upper back.
•  Test 5 tests the strength of the lower back.
• Test 6 tests the strength of the back and hamstring muscles.

Question.10. Give the names of the tests design by Rikli and Jones for senior citizen fitness and state what each test is used to test.
Answer. The tests design by Rikli and Jones for senior citizen fitness are

1. Chair stand test for lower body strength.
2.  Arm curl test for upper body strength and endurance.
3. Chair sit and reach test for lower body flexibility.
4. Back scratch test for upper body flexibility.
5.  Eight foot up and go test for coordination and agility.
6.  Six minute walk test for aerobic fitness and endurance.

Question.11. Describe the purpose and procedure of six minute walk test for aerobic endurance.
Answer. Purpose This test measures aerobic fitness and endurance of senior citizens.
Procedure The walking course is laid out in a 50 yard (45.72 mt.) rectangular area (dimension 45×5 yards) with cones placed at regular intervals to indicate distance walked. The aim of this test is to walk as quickly as possible for six minutes to cover as much ground as possible. Subjects are to set their own pace (a preliminary trial is useful to practice pacing) and are able to stop for a rest if they desire.

Question.12. Which test will you conduct for lower body strength of senior citizens and what is its procedure?
Answer. We will conduct the Chair Stand Test for lower body strength of senior citizens. Its procedure is ,

1. Place the chair against a wall or otherwise stabilise it for safety. The subject sits in the middle of the seat with his feet shoulder width apart, flat on the floor. The arms are to be crossed at the wrists and held close to the chest.
2.  From the sitting position, the subject stands completely up, then completely back down and this is repeated for 30 sec. Count the total number of complete chair stands (up and down equals one stand).

Question.13. Describe in detail â€˜Eight foot up and go test for agility’.
Answer. The eight foot up and go test is a coordination and agility test for the elderly. The purpose of this test is to measure speed, agility and balance while moving. The procedure is,

1. Place the chair next to a wall (for safety) and the marker 8 feet in front of the chair. Clear the ( path between the chair and the marker.
2.  The subject should start fully seated, hands resting on the knees and feet flat on the ground.
3. On the command ‘Go’, the timing is started and the subject stands and walks (no running is allowed) as quickly as possible as to and around the cone, returning to the chair to sit down.
4.  The score is the better time of two trials to the nearest 1/10th of a sec.

Question.14. Explain the Arm Curl Test for upper body strength for senior citizens.
Answer. The Arm Curl Test is a test of upper body strength. The purpose of this test is to measure upper body strength and endurance. The subject has to do as many arms curls as possible in 30 sec. This test is conducted on the dominant arm side (or stronger side). Its procedure is

1. The subject sits on the chair holding the weight (8 pounds for men / 5 pounds for women) in the hand using a suitcase grip (palm facing towards the body) with the arm in a vertically down position beside the chair.
2. The upper arm is placed against the body so that only the lower arm is moving (the tester may assist to hold the upper arm steady).
3. The subject curls the arm up through a full range of motion, gradually turning the palm up (flexion with supination).
4.  Then the arm is lowered through the full range of motion, gradually return to the starting position. The arm must be fully bent and then fully straightened at the elbow.
5. Repeat this action as many times as possible within 30 sec.
6.  The score is the total number of controlled arm curls performed in 30 sec.

Question.15. What is the usefulness of back scratch test for senior citizens?
Answer. The usefulness of the back scratch test for senior citizens is to assess the upper body flexibility, particularly the shoulder. This is important in performing various items of daily routine like combing one’s hair, putting on garments requiring to be worn from over the head, reaching for a seat belt etc.

Question.16. Explain the procedure of the Chair sit and Reach Test for senior citizens.
Answer. The procedure for the Chair Sit and Reach Test is

1. The subject sits on the edge of the chair (placed against a wall for safety). One foot must remain flat on the floor. The other leg is extended forward with the knee straight, heel touching the floor, with ankle bent at 90 °.
2.  Place one hand on top of the other with tips of the middle fingers even, exhale and reach forward towards the toes by bending at the hip. Keep the back straight and head up.
3. Avoid bouncing or quick movements and never stretch to the point of pain. Keep the knee straight and hold the reach for 2 sec.
4. The distance to be measured is between the finger tips and the toes. If the finger tips touch the toes, the score is zero. If they do not touch, measure the distance between the fingers and the toes (a negative score); if they overlap, measure by how much (a positive score).
5.  Perform two trials and record the better score to the nearest 1/2 inch or 1 cm as the distance reached, either as a negative or positive score. Record which leg was used for measurement.

Question.17. Regular physical activities cannot stop the clock of ageing; but definitely it can slow the process. Justify.
Answer. Regular exercise can delay the ageing process, as, by regular exercise, all the body functions are working properly and blood supply to all the organs improves the efficiency of an individual. Regular exercise also makes muscles strong. Regular exercise delays the ageing process by

1.  Increasing the heart rate and stroke volume.
2.  Increasing the cardiac output.
3.  Increase in the size of lungs and the heart.

5 Marks Questions
Question.18. Describe the Kraus Weber Test in detail.
Answer. The Kraus Weber Test is a test of minimum muscular fitness of the various muscles of the body. The test consists of six items which indicate the level of muscular strength and flexibility of key muscle groups.
Usually the scoring of each item is graded either on pass/ fail basis orarange of scoring from zero to ten. A subject’s grade of zero means that the subject has failed in’a particular test item; score ranges from one to ten are for subjects who pass these test items. The six tests are

• Test 1 tests the strength of the abdominal and psoas muscles.
• Test 2 tests the strength of the abdominal muscles.
•  Test 3 tests the strength of the psoas muscles.
•  Test 4 tests the strength of the upper back.
• Test 5 tests the strength of the lower back.
• Test 6 tests the strength of the back and hamstring muscles.

Question.19. Explain AAHPER physical fitness test.
Answer. The AAHPER (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation) youth fitness test was formed in 1965 in United States, but was revised in 1976. This test was administered on school students of 17 years of age.
The students are advised to warm up before they participate in the test. All the students must be medically fit. This test has the following six items

1.  Pull ups (for boys) / Flexed arm hang (for girls) to measure arm and shoulder strength.
2.  Flexed leg sit ups to measure abdominal strength and endurance.
3. Shuttle run to measure speed and agility.
5.  50 yard dash to measure speed.
6. 600 yard run-walk to measure endurance.

Question.20. Explain the measurement of cardiovascular fitness Harvard step test.
Answer. The procedure is that the performer steps up and down 30 times a minute on the bench. Each time the subject should step all the way up on the bench with the body erect. The stepping exercise continues for exactly 5 min, unless the performer is forced to stop sooner due to exhaustion.
As soon as he stops exercising, the performer sits on a chair quietly while pulse rates are counted at 1 to
1 1/2,  2 to  2 1/2 and  3 to  3 1/2 min after the exercise. The Physical Efficiency Index (PEI) is computed using the formula :

Question.21.Describe the measurement of flexibility using the Chair sit and reach test.
Answer.The Chair sit and reach test is part, of the senior fitness test protocol, and is designed to test the functional fitness of seniors

• Purpose This test measures lower body flexibility.
• Equipment Required Ruler, straight back or folding chair (seat 17 inch/ 44 cm high).
• Procedure The subject sits on the edge of the chair placed against a wall for safety.

One foot must remain flat on the floor. The other leg is extended forward with the knee straight, heel touching the floor, with ankle bent at 90 °. Place one hand on top of the other with tips of the middle fingers even, exhale and reach forward towards the toes by bending at the hip. Keep the back straight and head up.
Avoid bouncing or quick movements and never stretch to the point of pain. Keep the knee straight and hold the reach for 2 sec. The distance to be measured is between the finger tips and the toes. If the finger tips touch the toes then the score is zero. If they do not touch, measure the distance between the fingers and the toes (a negative score); if they overlap, measure by how much (a positive score). Perform two trials and record the better score.

Question.22. Write about the measurement of cardiovascular fitness Rock port test.
Answer. The Rock port one mile walk test tells us about the aerobic fitness of an individual. In this test, the time taken to finish the walk, exercising heart rate, body mass, age and gender are noted. These parameters are inserted in an equation to predict aerobic fitness.
The Rock port one mile walk test is performed on a 400 m standard track. After walking for one mile, the heart rate is measured at the wrist for 15 sec immediately after completion. The actual heart rate is determined by multiplying this number by 4. The time taken to complete the 1 mile is converted to the nearest hundredth minute. The calculation of  VO2  is done with the help of the equation:

Question.23. Describe the procedure for administering the Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test.
Answer. The Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test for assessing the functional fitness of older adults describes easy to understand and effective tests to measure aerobic fitness, strength and flexibility using minimal and inexpensive equipment. The individual fitness test items involve common activities such as getting up from a chair, walking, lifting, bending and stretching. The tests were developed to be safe and enjoyable for older adults while still meeting scientific standards for reliability and validity. The tests are

1.  Chair Stand Test – testing lower body strength
2. Arm Curl Test – testing upper body strength
3. Chair sit and Reach Test – lower body flexibility test
4.  Back Scratch Test – upper body flexibility test
5.  8 Foot Up and Go Test – agility test
6. Walk Test (6 min) or Step in Place Test (2 min) – The Walk Test is used to assess aerobic fitness; however, if the person uses orthopedic devices when walking or has difficulty balancing, they do the Step in Place Test.