CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 12 Training in Sports

Physical EducationNCERT SolutionsRD Sharma Solutions
1 Mark Questions
Question.1. What are pace races? [CBSE 2013]
Answer. Pace races are an effective training method for improving speed endurance. A pace race generally means running a race of 800 metres or more at a uniform speed, with another athlete running 10-15 metres ahead of the other athletes who sets the pace of running. This uniform speed running is repeated at intervals fixed according to the standard of the athlete.

Question.2. Define cardiovascular endurance. [CBSE2012]
Answer. It is the ability of the heart, lungs and blood vessels to supply a sufficient amount of oxygen and nutrients to the cells to meet demands of activities for prolonged performance or large muscle dynamic exercises at moderate to high levels of intensity.

Question.3. What is the interval training method? [CBSE 2011]
Answer. Interval training method is called terrace training. It is a training of the heart through endurance training and based upon the effort and recovery principle.

Question.4. What is sports training?
Answer. Sportstraining is a specialised process of all round physical conditioning aimed at the preparation of sportspersons for improving performance in games and sports.

Question.5. What is speed?
Answer. Speed is the ability of an individual to perform a movement of the same pattern at a faster rate.

Question.6. What is flexibility?
Answer. Flexibility is the range of movement of joints. Flexibility can be defined as the ability to execute movement with greater amplitude or range.

Question.7. What is endurance?
Answer. Endurance is the ability of an individual to sustain any activity for a longer period. It also means the ability to resist fatigue.

Question.8. What is fartlek training?
Answer. Fartlek is a Swedish word which means speed play. In this method, pace and speed are not pre-planned. An individual can change his speed according to the surroundings (hills, forests, rivers, muddy roads, metal roads, grassy ground etc). .

Question.9. What is circuit training?
Answer. Circuit training is a formal type of training in which an athlete goes through a series of selected exercises that are arranged in a circuit. There are usually 5 to 10 stations in a circuit.

Question.10. What do you mean by training?
Answer. Training means to prepare someone for some assignment. Training is the process of preparation for some task.

Question.11. Write any two definitions of sports training.
Answer. According to Mathew “Sports training is the basic form of preparation of a sportsman.”
According to Martin, “It is a planned and controlled process to achieve goals in which the changes of motor performance and behaviour are made through measures of content, methods and organisation.”

Question.12. List any four training methods.
Answer. Some useful training methods are (any four)

  1. Circuit training
  2. Interval training
  3. Continuous training
  4.  Fartlek training
  5. Weight training

Question.13. What are the methods for developing flexibility?
Answer. Methods for developing flexibility are

  1. Ballistic method
  2.  Static stretching method
  3.  Dynamic stretching method
  4.  Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique

3 Marks Questions
Question.14. Suggest different ways to improve reaction ability of a player. [CBSE 2013 Modified]
Answer. Improved reaction ability is a performance prerequisite to do motor actions under given conditions in minimum time. There are two methods for improving this. They are:

  1. Acceleration Runs They test the ability to achieve high speed of locomotion from a stationary position or from a slow moving position. Acceleration ability is improved indirectly by improving on explosive strength, technique and movement frequency.
  2. Short Sprints For direct improvement of acceleration, short sprints of 25 to 80 m are the best means. The maximum speed achieved by a sprinter from a stationary start is for about 6 sec. Various researches have shown that during a sprint run the speed also increases with time.
    At the end of 1st sec the approximate speed is 55% of maximum.
    At the end of 3rd sec the approximate speed is 91 % of maximum.
    At the end of 5th sec the approximate speed is 99% of maximum.

Question.15. Briefly explain the advantages of fartlek training. [CBSE 2012 Modified]
Answer. Advantages of fartlek training are:

  1. It is good for increasing strength and cardiorespiratory endurance.
  2.  Several athletics can take part in the training programme at a time.
  3.  It does not require any equipment and can be organised easily.
  4.  This training method is not rigid; it is flexible in nature.
  5.  It improves the efficiency of the heart and lungs.
  6. It provides experience of nature.

Question.16. Explain the meaning of training.
What do you understand by the term sports training?
Answer. The word training means to give practical and theoretical knowledge of a specific field. But in physical education, training is a scientific and systematic way to enhance sports performance. The training methods are based upon scientific principles in a systematic order. In other words, we can say that these are the methods to improve general and specific performance in games and sports.

Question.17. Differentiate isometric and isotonic exercises.
Answer. Isometric is derived from a latin word which means some length. Therefore, in these exercises, the length of muscles remains the same during workout. These exercises have no external movements and work done is zero, hence these are not visible to others.
Isotonic is derived from a latin word which means some tension. In these exercises, the muscular group has tension along with movement. In isotonic exercises, the length of muscles changes (shortens or lengthens) during action along with tension in them.
A comparison between their characteristics is given below:

Question.18. Elucidate any two principles of sports training.
Answer. Two principles of sports training are:

  1. Principle of Progression The principle of progression also makes us realise the need for proper rest and recovery. The overload should not be increased too rapidly. If the overload is increased too rapidly, it may result in injury or muscle damage.
  2.  Principle of Specificity Principle of specificity states that exercising a certain part of component of the body primarily develops that part. It means that to become better at a particular exercise or skill, you must perform that exercise or skill.

Question.19. Discuss two types of flexibility.
Answer. Two types of flexibilities are

  1. Active Flexibility It is the ability to do movement for a longer distance without external help e.g. exercise without partner. .
  2.  Passive Flexibility It is the ability to do movement for a greater distance with external help e.g. stretching exercise with the help of a partner. It is always more than active flexibility.

Question.20. What are various’ factors of speed?
Explain the types of speed.
Answer. The various factors of speed are:

  1. Reaction Time Time taken to respond to a given stimulus, e.g. start in races.
  2. Acceleration Ability Ability of the body to achieve maximum possible speed in’minimum possible time e.g. 50 m run, 60 m run, 80 m run etc.
  3.  Speed of Movement Time taken by a muscle or group of muscles to complete a movement e.g. 100 m race from start to finish.
  4.  Locomotor Ability Ability of the body to maintain maximum speed for maximum duration e.g. maintenance phase in 100 m race.
  5.  Speed Endurance Ability of the body to perform any movement speedily under the condition of fatigue e.g. pace races.

Question.21. Explain the concept of fartlek training.
Answer. Fartlek is a Swedish term which means speed play. In such type of training, an athlete can adopt any pace as .per his wish and ability to complete a specific distance. The main aspect of this training is that he has to cover the distance in fixed time. He can also change his speed or pace according to the various geographical surroundings like hills, rivers, forests, muddy roads and grassy grounds etc. During fartlek training, the rate of heartbeat should range between 140-180 beats/min. It improves the efficiency of the lungs and heart for an activity for duration of not less than 15 min.

Question.22. How would you train for developing speed?
Explain the various methods of speed development.
Answer. Speed is the ability of moving a body part or the whole body with the greatest possible speed or velocity.
To develop speed, we can use the following methods :

  1.  Acceleration runs (sprints)
  2. Pace races (speed endurance)

For developing speed in sprinting and running over distances of 800 m or more

  1.  An athlete should commence his training with around 75% of his maximum speed.
  2. He should move gradually towards 100% of his maximum speed.
  3. The total number of runs per unit (in one day) should be between 6 and 12, depending upon the capacity of the athlete.
  4.  Acceleration runs should be started after proper warming up.
  5. Training at maximum speed in early morning should be avoided.
  6.  In case of pain or cramp in muscles, training should be discontinued.

Question.23. Define speed. Explain the methods of speed development.
How do acceleration runs and pace races develop speed?
Answer. Speed It is the ability of an individual to cover maximum distance in minimum possible time.
Developing Methods

  1. Acceleration Runs A good athlete generally accelerates ter the first 30-60 “m, so the acceleration should be performed for 30-60 m only.
    Intensity — High; 90% and above nature
  2.  Pace Races When an athlete has accelerated to his maximum speed, he should maintain this speed for maximum duration without any slowing down. The method to be followed in these – races involves the following.
    (i) Intensity should be 60-80%
    (ii) Repetitions should be 2-6
    (iii) Distance should be 60-600 m
    In pace races, the speed can be increased by
    • increasing the stride length.
    • lifting the knee higher.
    • developing coordination between arms and legs.

Question.24. Explain the term ‘warming up’. What are its advantages?
Answer. Warming up is a process in which muscles are warmed up by running, jogging and performing some freehand exercises prior to training or competition.
A warming up session is divided into two parts:

  1. General warming up
  2. Specific warming up .

Warming up should not be less than 15 min and not more than 40 min.

  1.  It raises the body temperature.
  2.  It creates tension in the muscles and makes the joints comparatively active.
  3. It improves metabolic reaction.
  4. It reduces the chances of muscular injuries.

Question.25. What is strength? Discuss any two types of exercises used for strength development.
Answer. Strength It is the ability of muscles to overcome resistance. It is the ability of an individual to work against resistance, e.g. various throws and jump events, swimming etc.
Types of exercises for strength development are:

  1. Isometric Exercises or Static Contraction The literal meaning of the word isometric is constant length, i.e. iso means constant and metric means length.
    In this contraction, muscles work against a resistance but there is no change in the length of muscle. No external movement is visible to a third person, e.g. leg press, pushing a wall, squat position, holding leg at 45 °.
  2.  Isokinetic Exercises The literal meaning of the term isokinetic is constant speed, i.e. iso means constant and kinetic means motion.
    It is defined as maximal contraction with constant speed over the full range of movement, e.g. cycling, arm stroke jn butterfly style swimming etc.

Question.26.Discuss the continuous training method in detail.
Answer.In this method, exercise is done for a long duration without giving any break or pause in between the exercise. It is of three types

  1.  Slow Pace Continuous Method In this method,
    Intensity (rate of doing work) —Low
    Distance — Long (10-30 km)
    Heart rate — 140-160 beats/m in
  2. Fast Pace Continuous Method
    Intensity — High
    Distance — Less (2-10 km)
    Heart rate— 160-180 beats/min
  3.  Variable Pace Method
    Intensity— Between low and high
    Distance — 8-20 km
    Heart rate— 140-180 beats/min (1×3)

Question.27. Discuss any two methods of endurance development.

  1. Interval Training Method In this method, the whole workload is divided into smaller load periods with a rest period in between them. Incomplete recovery is given in intervals.
    In this method, heart rate increases from normal to 180 beats/min. The bouts of load are repeated when the heart rate comes down to about 120 beats/min.
    Interval training method is of two types
    (a) Slow or Extensive Interval Method
    Intensity — Low (60-80%)
    Distance — 400-800 m
    Frequency — 15-25 repetitions
    (b) Fast or Intensive Interval Method
    Intensity — High (80-100%)
    Distance — 50-400 m,
    Frequency — 8-12 repetitions
  2.  Fartlek Training Method
    Fartlek training was introduced by Dr Astrand. In this training, the athlete can run at any pace, can select any path, can run for any distance, but the course has to be completed in the specified time. The training involves running through streets, woods, river or seaside, running up and down a hill, forest and muddy track etc.

5 Marks Questions
Question.28. Draw ten stations circuit training programme for improving the jumping ability of a player. [CBSE2013]
Answer. Circuit training is a very popular and effective method of training for the improvement of physical fitness components. In circuit training, several exercises are done one after the other. Completion of one set of each exercise in rotation is called one round. There are normally three or more rounds in circuit training which consists of 7-12 exercises generally.
The exercises in a circuit are arranged in such a manner that different muscle groups are exercised in rotation. A specific circuit, however, can consist of several exercises involving the same muscle groups. An example ofciituit training is given below.

Question.29. Define the term strength. Draw 8 stations circuit training programme for upper body strength. [CBSE 2012]
Answer. Strength It is the ability to resist stress. It is the ability of the muscles to overcome resistance. Strength of the body can be measured in pounds or dynes.
8 Stations Circuit Training Programme:

Question.30. Explain the concept of sports training.
Discuss about the three periods of a sports training programme.
Answer. Training is based upon scientific principles in a systematic order. In other words, we can say that sports training consists of methods to improve general and specific performance in games and sports. It gives us knowledge regarding performance and it also guides us how to improve further through different ways.
Sports training consists of training periods which are split into training sessions which are further divided into training schedules. In the training periods, work/load is performed. It is performed in a progressive way through macro, mesoand micro cycles. The training period is a long process which may extend to one year or more.
Training Programme Basically, a training programme can be divided into three periods

  1. Preparatory Period In this period, the player achieves the physical fitness and skill efficiency necessary for competition.
    It is practiced in three phases:
    (a) Phase I In this phase, the player develops general abilities relating to physical fitness like basic skills. It is perfected after about four to six month’s practice.
    (b) Phase II In this phase, the player develops specific fitness abilities like speed, flexibility and coordination. It is about two month’s practice.
    (c) Phase III In this phase, the player develops tactics and strategies and achieves perfection for competition.
  2. Competition Period In this period, the player actually plays in competition and aims to achieve top performance in competition. It is practiced in two phases
    Phase I In this phase, special attention is given towards specific exercises, skills and techniques, practical application of tactics in a game etc.
    4 Phase II In this phase, there is actual competition for the players.
  3. Transitional Period This is the relaxation period after each competition.

Question.31. Define strength. Explain the details of strength training methods with the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Answer. Strength is the ability of our muscles to overcome resistance, We use the following methods of strength development

  1. Isometric Exercises They are those exercises in which the length of the muscles remain the same during workout. No external movement is visible to a third person. During an isometric contraction, the muscle develops tension but does not change its length. In isometric exercises, special instruments may be used, e.g. power rack.
    (a) They can be performed anywhere.
    (b) In these exercises, less time is required.
    (c) In these exercises, less equipment is required.
    (d) They develop a high level of static and maximum strength.
    Disadvantage: It raises the blood pressure, and therefore it is not recommended for heart patients.
  2.  Isotonic Exercises These are exercises in which movements are clearly visible in the concerned body part. Length of the muscles changes and work done is clearly visible. These exercises help muscles to also improve their flexibility along with developing strength in them.
    Isotonic contractions are of two types:
    (a) Concentric (b) Eccentric
    (a) They develop dynamic strength.
    (b) They contribute to hypertrophy of muscles.
    (a) In these exercises, there are chances of strain and stress injuries.
    (b) In these exercises, usually some equipment is required.
  3.  Isokinetic Exercises In these exercises, there is movement along with continuous tension in both flexor and extensor muscles. Here, both the flexor and extensor muscles develop tension ” along with full range of movement (may be upward or downward) simultaneously. These require special equipment, e.g. cycling upward, swimming, weight training machines etc.
    (a) They develop a high level of dynamic as well as explosive strength,
    (b) These are effective for almost every game.
    (a) They require special types of equipment,
    (b) They must be performed under observation of a coach.

Question.32. Explain circuit training method in detail.
How does circuit training develop strength, speed and endurance?
Answer. Circuit training programme was designed by GT Adamson and RE Morgan in 1957. It is very effective method for strength, speed and endurance development. Circuit training is a formal type of training in which an athlete goes through a series of selected exercises that are arranged in a circuit with 5 to 10 stations.
Classification of Circuit Training:

  1.  General Circuit Training In this type of training, different muscle groups are given exercises in rotation.
    Number of stations – 5-10
    Intensity Frequency – 60-80%
    Frequency – 3 days per week
    Exercise performed – 30 sec, 1 min
    Rest between two stations -5 to 15 sec
    Rest between two circuits- 2 to 5 min
  2. Specific Circuit Training In this training, specific muscle groups are given exercises at every station. Exercises are also similar to competitive stress e.g. circuit training for football, volleyball, badminton etc.
    Note: EP represents exercises to be performed, Ml represents muscles involved, CD represents physical fitness component developed.

Advantages of Circuit Training:

  1. A single teacher can supervise the training programme.
  2. A large number of athletes (20-30) can be accommodated.
  3. It can be performed anywhere — indoor, outdoor, on rooftop etc.
  4. Any specific component of physical fitness can be developed.
  5. Intensity or load can be increased if required.
  6. All muscles of body can be exercised.
  7. It is an interesting method of training.
  8. It can be performed in bad weather also.

Question.33. Define flexibility and explain the methods of flexibility development.
Answer. Flexibility is the range of movement. It is the ability of joints to move in the maximum range.
Types of Flexibility:

  1. Active Flexibility It is performed without external help or self-movement of a part to the maximum range.
  2. Passive Flexibility It is the ability of joints to move in their maximum range with external help.

Developing Methods of Flexibility:

  1. Ballistic Method In ballistic method, the movement is performed with a swing in a rhythmic way.
  2. Static Stretching Method In this method, the joint is stretched and held for 10 to 30 sec.
  3. Dynamic Stretching Method In this method, activities are performed with a motion or movement in a full range.
  4.  Post Isometric Stretch or PNF Technique This method is based on the principle of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. PNF is a more advanced technique that involves both stretching (static + dynamic) techniques and contraction of the muscle groups being targeted. For gaining flexibility in the shortest possible time, PNF technique is the most appropriate method for developing flexibility.