CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 6 Women and Sports
1 Mark Questions
Question.1. Who was the first Indian woman to win a bronze medal at the Sydney Olympics?
Answer. Kamam Malleswari was the first Indian woman who won a bronze medal at the Sydney Olympics in 2000 in the weightlifting event.
Question.2. What do you mean by menarche?
Answer. A girl’s first menstrual period is known as menarche. Menarche is a sign of growing up and becoming a woman. Menarche usually occurs between 9 and 15 years of age.
Question.3. Who was the first- Indian to win a bronze medal in women’s boxing event in the London Olympics 2012?
Answer. World champion Mary Korn won a bronze medal in the women’s boxing event in the London Olympics 2012.
Question.4. What is the time when a pregnant women athlete should not participate in sporting competition?
Answer. There is no definite point during pregnancy when a female athlete should cease competition; decisions regarding participation should be made by the female athlete in conjunction with her healthcare provider.
3 Marks Questions
Question.5. What are the factors that causes hindrance in the participation of women in sports?
Answer. The following factors are responsible for less participation of women in sports:
- Time constraints Women find less, time for sports due to their domestic duties.
- Social constraints The attitude of society towards participation of women in sports is negative.
- Lack of sports infrastructure This is particularly so for infrastructure exclusively for women.
- Absence of skill There are very few female coaches available to develop the skills of women. Sociological constraints limit the success of male coaches with female athletes.
- Concerns for personal safety Women are more afraid to venture in a ‘male’ field (perceived) as they are concerned more about safety from harrassment or exploitation.
Question.6. What do you understand by female athlete triad and what are its components?
Answer. The “Female athlete triad” is a syndrome of three related conditions generally seen in teenage or adult female athletes who aren’t meeting their energy requirements, which ultimately leaves them , undernourished.
The three components of the female athlete triad include :
- Disordered eating and anaemia (Energy deficits)
- Amenorrhea (Menstrual irregularities)
- Osteoporosis (Decreased bone density)
A female athlete can exhibit symptoms of one, two, or all three parts of the triad.
Question.7. Briefly explain amenorrhea. How it is associated with women athletes?
Answer. Amenorrhea refers to the absence of menstrual periods. It may be either primary (meaning a woman has never developed menstrual periods) or secondary (absence of menstrual periods in a woman who was previously menstruating).
There are many reasons responsible for amenorrhea including extensive exercise and improper diet.
Exercising intensively and not consuming enough calories can lead to decreases in hormones that result in a girl’s periods becoming irregular or stopping altogether.
Question.8. How can osteoporosis min a female athlete’s career?
Answer. Osteoporosis is a disease of the bones. It happens when you lose too much bone, make too little bone or both. As a result bones may break from a minor fall.
Estrogen is lower in case of female athletes. Low estrogen levels and poor nutrition, especially low calcium intake, can lead to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a weakening of the bones due to the loss of bone density and improper bone formation. This condition can ruin a female athlete’s career because it may lead to bone fractures and other injuries.
Question.9. Briefly discuss the methods to increase women’s participation in sports.
Answer. The following steps should be taken to increase women’s participation in sports.
- Coaching programmes During coaching, women should be motivated and provided appropriate opportunity to undertake leadership positions within an organisation. State of the art technical instruction should be provided to them. Flexible approach by the authorities is required for participation of women in sports.
- Safety This is another factor that promotes girls’ participation in sports. Exercising in groups can make physical activity safer for women and girls.
- Facilities Keeping in mind the hygienic needs of women and girls separate change facilities . should be arranged for them. Childcare should be provided so that women can bring their children to the training or competition venues without hesitation.
- Affordability Most of the women depend upon the male members of the family. Their earning capacity is usually negligible. So some concessions should be given to them. Instances of these are participation fee should be abolished, travelling and boarding should be provided cheaply etc.
Question.10. What is menopause? How does it affect the performance of women athletes?
Answer. Menopause is the time when a woman stops having menstrual periods and she is no longer able to have children. The age of menopause is normally between 45 and 5.5 years. It is not a disease or illness. It is a transition between two phases of a woman’s life.
There are several symptoms of menopause like lack of sleep, weight gain, brain fog (lack of concentration), headaches, irregular periods, backaches, loss of muscle mass etc that could cause female athletes to perform poorly in endurance sporting events. Not all women react the same way to menopausal symptoms or treatments. So special attention should be given to sportswomen at this period in life.
Question.11. Explain briefly about the psychological aspects of a woman athleteT
Answer. The increased stress of competition can cause women athletes to react both physically and mentally in a manner that can negatively affect their performance abilities. They may feel tension, their heartbeat may rise, they worry about the outcome of the competition, they find if difficult to concentrate on the task in hand etc. It is the duty of the coaches to teach the techniques to control competitive anxiety to their trainees. It is required that an athlete control these competitive anxieties if she wants to optimise her performance.
Once these techniques are learned by athletes, they can easily handle the competitive environment. Psychology is considered as another weapon in the athlete’s armoury in gaining the winning edge.
5 Marks Questions
Question.12. Explain briefly about gender ideology in sports.
Answer. Sport is one of the most celebrated and contested institutions in our society. In ancient times, sport served various social functions, from spiritual and religious expression to applied practice for warfare. Sport provides professional opportunities for athletes and coaches but the participation of men and women is not proportionate.
- For decades, gender ideology has had a tremendous impact on the way people view the game and its athletes. Most of the people and fans believe women cannot perform well in sports but they are only suitable for kitchen and cleaning duties.
- This line of thinking has been passed from generation to generation but slowly the barriers have been breaking. Now female athletes are far more accepted than 30 years ago but there are still many obstacles ahead for female athletes to reach the same level and avail the opportunities similar to male athletes.
- There is a strong belief that men are much stronger, faster and more capable than women and therefore are better at sports and are more entertaining to watch.
- There are popular female athletes like Venus and Serena Williams, Danica Patrick and Saina Nehwal, but they posses nowhere near the star power and attraction like male athletes Usain Bolt, Milkha Singh etc.
During the last fifty years gender roles of men and women in sport have changed greatly. Recently, female athletes have made great strides in gaining equal representation and media coverage in comparison to the past, when there was little coverage of female athletes. In addition, women have begun to participate in many sports that had previously been male dominated. Women have continued to break stereotypes and cultural barriers that have prevented them from participating in ‘manly’ sports.