CBSE Class 12 Physics Lab Manual

  1. General Introduction
  2. Current Electricity—Sources and Accessories
  3. Measurement of Resistance
    1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current.
    2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the resistivity (specific resistance) of its material.
    3. To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.
    4. To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.
  4. Measurement of Electromotive Force and Potential Difference
    1. To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
    2. To determine the internal resistance of a given primary cell using potentiometer.
  5. Galvanometer, Ammeter and Voltmeter
    1. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
    2. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
    3. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.
  6. Frequency of A.C. (Alternating Current) Mains
    1. To find the frequency of the AC mains with a sonometer.
    2. Activities
      1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.
      2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.
      3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.
      4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
      5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.
      6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.
  7. Focal Length of Spherical Mirrors
    1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.
    2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
  8. Focal Length of Spherical Lenses
    1. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.
    2. To find the focal length of a concave lens using a convex lens.
  9. Refractive Index of Prism Material, Glass Slab and Transparent Liquid
    1. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and the angle of deviation.
    2. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
    3. To find the refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror.
  10. Semiconductor Diodes and Transistors
    1. To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse bias.
    2. To draw the characteristic curve of a Zener diode and to determine its reverse breakdown voltage.
    3. To study the characteristics of a common emitter npn (or pnp) transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.
  11. Activities
    1. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, an IC, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.
    2. To use a multimeter to (a) identify base of transistor, (b) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors, (c) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED, (d) check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode, transistor or IC) is in working order.
    3. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of he source) on an LDR.
    4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
    5. To observe polarisation of light using two polaroids.
    6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.
    7. (a) To study the nature and size of the image formed by a convex lens on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens). (b) To study the nature and size of the image formed by a concave mirror on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the mirror).
    8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal.length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.