Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture –  CBSE Notes for Class 12 History

• With the decline to the Mughal Empire in the 18th century, many old lords lost their importance.
• 18th century marks the emergences of many new kingdoms like Lucknow, Hyderabad, Poona, Baroda, Nagpur, etc,
• The port towns/cities swat, Masulipatnam, and Dhaka which developed in the 17th century declined during the mid 18th century with the emergence of new cities like Madras, Calcutta and Bombay.
• The colonial rule was based on many kinds of data and compilation of information. Its purpose was to keep an eye on the city life and trading activities so the statistical data, maps, census and official records of municipalities were prepared.
• The survey of India was constituted in 1878 to prepare the survey map of India.
• Railway was introduced in India in 1853. The introduction of railway brought many changes in the life of urban life.
• In the 19th century East India Company established many stations likes, Shimla, Mount Abu and Darjeeling. These hill stations were set up for stationing army, for guarding frontiers and for launching invasion against enemy.
• In 1864, the Viceray John Lahilence, officially shifted his capital at ‘Shimla’ and the official residence of the commander-in-chief was also set up in Shimla.
• The social life of new cities was bewildering. It had rich and poorest of the poor people.
• The development in the means of the transportation brought many new changes in the social life of the people.
• The importance of middle class began to increase in new cities. Here, they got many new job opportunities which brought a great change in their perception and outlook.
• New identities and new social groups came into existence in these towns.
• Many new changes occurred in the life of the people. Important changes were witnessed in the lives of the woman living in the cities. Here they got many new opportunities of job, which brought new changes in their perception and outlook.
• The British East India company had first set up its trading activities in Surat.
• The Buildings and architectural style threw an invaluable light at many things and provided us an important information about the ideal building.
• These buildings also explain the perspective and viewpoints of those who constructed these building.
• Architectural style do not represent and reflect the prevalent taste. It moulded tastes, popularised styles, shapes, contours of cultures.
• Kasbah: A small town in the countryside.
• Ganj: Small size fixed market.
• Census: Counting of population
• White Towns: Towns where only European could live.
• Black Towns: Towns where only Indian could live.
• Civil lines: Urban areas where only white people could settle and live.
• Pet: A Tamil word, which means settlement.
• Purim: A Tamil word stands for a village.
• Dubhasia: Those people who speak English as well as local language.
• Vellars: A local rural community in Madras.
• Garermath: The east India company built the Fort William in Calcutta. From the prospective of its security, a vast open space was left around it. It was locally known as a garer math or maiden.
Time line:
1688  Bombay was handed over to East India company by the Butanes Empire.
1673  French established trading centre at Pondichhery.
1757  Battle of Placey
1798  Lord Welleseley appointed as the 1st General of Bangal
1807 Lottery commission was setup at Calcutta.
1814-16  Shimla was established.
1836  That shed huts were banned in Calcutta.
1872  Attempts were made for 1st census.
1878  Organisation of survey of India
1881  Madras harbour was completed.
1896  Plague began to spread in India cities.
1911  British transfer their capital from Calcutta to Delhi.

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