Our Country India – CBSE Notes for Class 6 Social
Facts that Matter:
• Our country, India is vast. It has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. In the north, it is surrounded by the Himalayas; in the west; there is the Arabian Sea; in the east; the Bay of Bengal and in the south; the Indian Ocean.
• India has a diverse landformsâ€”the lofty mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the Northern plains, the uneven plateau, and the coasts and islands.
• The climate of India also varies from region to region.
• We also find diversity in flora and fauna as well as in language and culture.
• India is the second most populous country of the world after China.
• India is located in the Northern hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer passes through it.
• The sun rises two hours earlier in the east, i.e. Arunachal Pradesh than in the west,
i. e. Gujarat.
• India’s seven neighbouring countries areâ€”Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Afganistan.
• Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait.
• India is divided into 28 states and 7 Union Territories. Delhi is the national capital.
• Rajasthan is the largest state while Goa is the smallest state in terms of area.
• India has a diverse physical featuresâ€”mountains, plateaus, plains, coasts and islands.
• The Himalayas mountains are divided into three main parallel rangesâ€”the Great Himalaya or Himadri, Middle Himalaya or Himachal and the Shiwalik.
• To the south of the Himalayas lie the Northern Indian plains.
• In the western part of India lies the Great Indian desert with little vegetation.
• To the south of northern plains lies the Peninsular plateau. It is triangular in shape. This is a region with numerous hill ranges and valleys. The Aravali hills, the Vindhyas, the Satpuras are the important ranges.
• The Western Ghats border the plateau in the west and the Eastern Ghats provide the
• To the west of the Western Ghats and the East of Eastern Ghats lie the Coastal plains.
• Lakshadweep islands are located in the Arabian sea while Andaman and Nicobar islands group lie to the south-east of the Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal.
Words that Matter :
• Peninsula: A piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides.
• Island: A piece of land that is surrounded by water on all sides.
• Desert: A vast sandy stretch of land.
• Alluvial deposits: Fine soil brought by rivers and deposited in the river basins.
• Tributary: A small river or stream that contributes its water to the main river by discharging it into main river from either side.
• Delta: An area of land formed at the mouth of the river. It is usually triangular in shape.
• Corals: These are skeletons of tiny marine animals called polyps.
• Tsunami: A strong and devastative harbour wave, generated due to an earthquake on the sea floor.
• Strait: A narrow passage of water connecting two large waterbodies like seas and oceans.