Economics Class 12 Revision Notes Microeconomics Chapter 3 Production  and Cost

Points to Remember

1.Production
It is the transformation of resources into commodities.

2. Production Function
Production function studies the functional relationship between physical input and physical output.
Y = F(LK)
Here, Y – Production, L = Labour, K = Capital

3.Total Product
It is the sum total of output produced by all units of labour.
TP= APxL
Here, TP = Total product, AP = Product per unit of labour L = Units of labour

4. Marginal Product
It is the change in total production as a result of a unit change in input of a variable factor (AL)
P = Change in total production
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5. Average Prodpct
It is per unit production of the variable fuel,or.
AP= TP/L
Here, AP = Average product
TP = Total product
L = Labour

6.Short run
The time period during which a firm, in order to make changes in its production can change only in its variable factors but not in its fixed factor, is termed as short run.

7. Long run
The time period in which a firm can change all the factors of production is termed as long run. In the long period, a firm can change its scale of plant also.

8.Law of Diminishing Marginal Product
The law states that with the increase in variable factor, keeping all other factors constant the marginal product of the variable factor diminishes after a certain level of production.
Reason for operating of law
(i) Optimum combination
(ii) Change in factor combinations

9.Law of Variable Proportion
The law states that with the increase in a variable factor, keeping other factor constant, initially the marginal product rises but after reaching a certain level of employment it starts declining.
Three stages of the law
(i) Increasing returns
(ii) Diminishing returns
(iii) Negative returns

10.Returns to Scale When producers change all the factors ot production in the same production, the proportional relationship between output and factor inputs is known as returns to scale.
(i) Constant Returns to Scale
When a proportional increase in all inputs results in an increase in output by the same proportion is called constant returns to scale.
(ii) Increasing Returns to Scale
IRS holds when proportional increase in all inputs results in an increase in output by more than the proportion.
(iii) Decreasing Returns to Scale DRS holds when
proportional in all inputs results in an increase in outpul by less than the proportion.

11.Cost Function The functional relationship between cost and quantity produced is termed as cost function.
C = F(QX)
Here, C = Production – Cos, Qx = Quantity produced of x goods

12.Cost of Production

Cost  is the expenditure incurred by thi producers on purchase of factor inputs such and land, labour  capital etc, non-factor inputs such as raw material, fuel etc.

13. Fxplicit Cost
The cost of those inputs whose payment is made to outsider of the firm. It is an accounting cost.

14. Implicit Cost
The cost of self owned inputs used in the production process is called implicit cost.
e.,g., rent of ownland, interest of own IMPLICIT etc.

15.Total Cost (TC) It is the sum total of fixed cost and variable cost corresponding to a given level of output.
TC = TFC + TVC
Here, TFC = Total Fixed Cost
TVC = Total Variable Cost TC = Total Cost
16. Total Fixed Cost (TFC)
TFC are the costs that are incurred on fixed factor inputs and do not vary with the output.
e.g.. Rent of factory, Interest on bonds,
TFC = Quantities of the fixed productive services
x Factor price
or TFC = TC – TVC

17. Total Variable Cost
The costs that are incurred on variable factor inputs and very directly with the output are called total variable costs.
eg. Raw material, fuel, electric power.
TVC ” Quantities of the variable productive service
x Factor price
TVC= TC – TFC

18. Average Cost (AC)
Average cost is the cost per unit of output produced.
AC= TC / Q ; Q — Units of output AC= AFC+AVC
AFC = Average Fixed Cost AVC = Average Variable Cost
19.Average Fixed Cost
Total fixed cost per unit of output incurred to a firm may be defined as average fixed cost.
AFC=TFC/Q

20. Averages Variable Cost (AVC)
Total variable cost per unit “I output; incurred to a firm is defined as the average variable cost .
AFC=TVC/Q.

21.Marginal Cost (MC)
It is the additional cost owing to the production of an additional unit of output.
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Since additional cost can only be variable cost.

22.Shape of Curves
(i) AC, AVC, MC curve U shaped due to law of returns to factor.
(ii) TFC curve stright line! i to A”-axis.
(iii) TC and TVC curve upward sloping.
(iv) AFC curve downward rectangular hyperbola.