Economics Class 12 Revision Notes Microeconomics Chapter 5 Market Equilibrium

1. Market Equilibrium
It is a situation of the market in which demand for a commodity is exactly equal to its supply

2.Equilibrium Price
Which corresponds to the quantity between market demand and market supply of a commodity.

3. Equilibrium Quantity
Which corresponds to the equilibrium price in the market.

4.Excess Demand
If at any price demand is greater than market supply, it is said excess demand in the market
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5.Excess Supply
If at any price market supply is greater than market demand, it is said excess supply in the market.
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6.Non-viable Industry
The industry for which demand curve and supply do not intersect each other at any positive quantity is called non-viable industry.

7.Viable Industry
In case of viable industry supply and demand curve must intersect at same point.
8.Price Ceiling
Price ceiling means maximum price oi a commodity that the seller can charge from the buyers. Often the government fixes this price much below the equilibrium market price of a commodity, so that it becomes within the reach of the poorer sections of the society.

9.Price Floor
It means the minimum price fixed by tlm gevernment for a commodity in the market. It seems paradoxical.
(i) Each firm employs labour up to the point where the marginal revenue product of labour equals the wage rate.
(ii) With supply curve remaining unchanged when demand curve shifts rightward (leftward), the equilibrium quantity increases (decreases) and equilibrium price increases with fixed number of firms.
(iii) With demand curve remaining unchanged when supply curve shifts rightward (leftward), the equilibrium quantity increases (decreases) and equilibrium price decrease (increases) with fixed number of firm.

10.Effect of a Simultaneous Change in Demand and Supply on Equilibrium Price
(i) When demand increases more than supply, equilibrium price will increase.
(ii) When demand and supply increases equally, equilibrium price remain constant.
(iii) When supply increases more than demand, equilibrium price falls.