Environment and Natural Resources –  CBSE Notes for Class 12 Political Science

1. Environmental concerns in Global politics cover losing fertility of agricultural land, and grazing, depletion of water resources as well as loss of bio-diversity, real danger to eco-system and coastal pollution, deteriorating of marine environment,
2. Environmental consequences of economic growth acquired a political shape from 1960s onwards, following a book published in 1972 namely Limits To Growth and Initiatives taken by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to promote co-ordination and effective response on environment at global level.
3. The Earth Summit held in Rio-de-Janerio, Brazil in 1992 revealed different views i.e. global north (the first world countries) and global south (the third world countries). Global North was concerned with the issues of ozone depletion and global warming and global south focused on economic development and environment management by Agenda 21.
4. Global commons refer to the areas or regions which require common governance by international community on major problems of ecological issues i.e. discovery of ozone hole over Antarctic, earth’s atmosphere and ocean floor associated with technology and industrial development.
5. The Rio Declaration at the Earth Summit in 1992 adopted the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities ‘refering special needs of developing countries in the fields as development, application and interpretation of rules of international environmental law to protect environment by both developing nations in a responsible manner.
6. The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) also emphasised to protect the climate system on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and capabilities.
Example-Largest and current global emissions of greenhouse gases originated in developed nations, hence low emissioned developing countries like India and China have been exempted from Kyoto Protocol held in Japan in 1997.
7. Common property resources refer to a group who have both rights and duties with respect to nature, levels of use and the maintenance of a given resource with mutual understanding and practices i.e. management of sacred groves on state owned forest land.
8. India plays a dominating role on the environmental issues as it signed and ratified 1997 Kyoto Protocol in August 2002 to follow common but differentiated responsibilities and India is a wary of recent discussions with UNFCCC about introducing binding commitments. India participated in global efforts by introducing National Autofuel Policy, Electricity Act, 2003 and National Mission on Biodiesel. Besides, India supports to adopt a common position by SAARC countries on major environmental issue to have a greater say regionwise.
9. Environmental movements are the movements of groups which are environmentally conscious to challenge environmental degradation at national or international level aiming at raising new ideas and long term vision i.e. in Mexico, Chille, Brazil, Malaysia, Indonesia, India faced enormous pressure.
10. Environmental movements are categorised as forest movements, movements against mining and mineral industry for creating Water Pollution and Anti Dam Movement.
11. ‘Resources Geopolitics’ is all about who gets what, when, where and how? The practices of neo-colonialism spread on a large scale and throughout a cold war, industrialised countries adopted methods to ensure a steady flow of resources by deployment of military forces near exploitation sites and sea-lanes of communications, the stock pilling of strategic resources and efforts to prop up friendly governments.
12. The global economy relied on oil as a portable and essential fuel. The history of petroleum is the history of war and struggle. Water is another important resource relevant to global politics. Regional variations and increasing scaring of fresh water may also lead to conflicts in the world to play politics.
13. Indigenous people bring the issues of environment, resources and politics together. Indigenous people live with their social, economic, cultural customs in particular areas who speak of their struggle, agenda, and rights to have equal status i.e. Island states in ocean region, Central and South America, Africa, India and South East Asia.
14. The issues related to rights of indigenous communities have been neglected in domestic and international politics for long. The World Council of Indigenous People was formed in 1975 which became first of 11 indigenous NGOs to receive consultative status in the UN.
1. Earth Summit: A conference held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in June 1992 on Environment and Development to deal with various environmental problems.
2. Agenda 21: The Earth Summit recommended a list of practices in reference of development to attain sustainability, called Agenda 21.
3. Kyoto Protocol: An international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions was agreed to in 1997 in Kyoto in Japan, based on principles set out in UNFCCC.
4. UNFCCC: The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change provided that parties should act to protect the climate system with common but differentiated responsibilities.
5. Indigenous People: Indigenous people comprise the descendants of peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country at the time when persons of different culture arrived there from different parts of the world.

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