Reproductive Health  Important Questions for CBSE Class 12 Biology Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and Infertility

1.Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) or Veneral Diseases (VD) or Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI) are diseases or infections, which are transmitted through sexual intercourse.

2.Some common STDs are gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital herpes, trichomoniasis, hepatitis-B, AIDS, etc. Among the above mentioned STDs, three viral infections AIDS, genital herpes and hepatitis-B are not curable, while others are curable.
The early general symptoms of STDs are:
(i) itching                                                                                         (ii) fluid discharge
(iii) slight                                                                                           (iv) swellings
in the genital region.
3.The patients remain undetected and untreated due to

  • absence or less significant symptoms in the early stages of infection.
  • social stigma attached to the STDs.

4.The late detection leads to complications like Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases (PID), abortions, still births, ectopic pregnancies, infertility or even cancer of the reproductive tract.

5.The incidence of these diseases is high in the persons of age group 15-24 years.
These infections can be avoided or prevented by the following ways:
(i)Avoid sexual practices with unknown partners/multiple partners.
(ii)Use of condoms during coitus.
(iii) In case of any doubt, visit a doctor immediately for detection and treatment.

6.Infertility is also one of the major aspect of reproductive health.

  • The inability to produce children inspite of unprotected sexual practices is called infertility.
  • The reasons of infertility can be physical, congenital diseases, drugs, immunological or even psychological.

There are several infertility clinics which can diagnose and provide treatment to the infertile couple to enable them to have children.

7.Sometimes, corrective treatments do not lead to the treatment of infertility. In such cases, Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) are used.
Some of the Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) are:
(i)IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation) or Test-Tube Baby Programme

  • Ova from wife/donor (female) and sperms from the husband/donor male are collected and induced to form zygote in the laboratory under same conditions as in body. This is called in vitro fertilisation (or fertilisation outside the body).
  • Zygote or early embryo is transferred into Fallopian tube or uterus for further development. This is called Embryo Transfer (ET). It can be:

ZIFT (Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer), in which embryos up to 8 blastomeres are transferred into the Fallopian tubes.
IUT (Intra Uterine Transfer), in which embryos of more than 8 blastomeres are transferred into the uterus.
(ii)GIFT (Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer) is done by the transfer of an ovum collected from a donor female into the Fallopian tube of another female, who is unable to produce ova, but can provide suitable conditions for fertilisation and further development.
(iii) ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection) is carried out by directly injecting sperm into the ovum to form an embryo in the laboratory. Embryo transfer is done later on.
(iv) AI (Artificial Insemination) is performed by collecting semen from the husband or a healthy donor and artificially introducing it either into the vagina or the uterus (intra uterine insemination). AI is used in cases where male partners are unable to inseminate the female or due to very low sperm counts in the ejaculate.

Previous Year  Examination Questions

1 Mark Question

1.Name the STDs which can be transmitted through contaminated blood. [All India 2009 C]
Ans.  AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is a STD that can be transmitted through  contaminated blood

2 Marks Questions

2.Tntra-cytoplasmic sperm injection’ and ‘Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT)’ are two assisted reproductive technologies. How is one different from the other?[All India 2014 C]
Ans.In gamete intra fallopian transfer, the ovum from a healthy donor female is transferred to a female, who cannot produce ova but can provide suitable environment for fertilisation and embryo development (in vivo fertilisation).
While in intra cytoplasmic sperm injection, the fertilisation is done in vitro by injecting sperms directly into the ovum, from a donor female, under simulated conditions. The embryo is thus, formed in laboratory and later transferred to uterus or Fallopian tube for further development

3.Explain the Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer Technique (ZIFT). How is Intra
Uterine Transfer Technique (IUT) different from it?    [All India 2010]
Ans.ZIFT (Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer) is the technique in which zygote or early embryo with upto 8 blastomeres is transferred into the Fallopian tube of female.
Whereas in IUT, embryo with more than 8 blastomeres is transferred into the uterus.

4.(i) Give any two reasons for infertility among young couple.
(ii) Test-tube baby programme is a boon to such couples. Explain the steps followed in the procedures.       [All India 2010 c]
Ans.(i) The reasons of infertility in young people can be physical, congenital diseases, use of drugs, immunological or even psychological.   ”    i
(ii) In test-tube programme

  • Ova from the wife or a donor female and the sperms from the husband or a donor male is allowed to fuse under simulated conditions in the laboratory. It is called in vitro
  • Embryo is then transferred into the uterus or fallopian tube for further development.

The process of embryo transfer is done in following ways:
Zygote or embryo up to 8 blastomeres is transferred into Fallopian tube (ZIFT).
Embryo with more than 8 blastomeres is transferred into uterus (IUT).

3 Marks Questions

5.A couple where both husband and wife are producing functional gametes, but the  wife is still unable to conceive, is seeking medical aid. Describe any one method that you can suggest to this couple to become happy parents.    [All India 2014]
Ans.  In case, if both husband and wife are producing functional gametes but wife is not able to conceive, the IVF technique can be best employed to bless them with child.
Method of In vitro fertilisation:
(i) Gametes from both husband and wife are collected, i.e. sperm and ova and fused to form zygote under laboratory conditions. As fertilisation takes place outside the female body, it is referred to as in vitro fertilisation.
(ii) The zygote or embryo is then either transferred to Fallopian tubes (if up to 8 blastomeres), i.e. ZIFT ‘ or to the uterus (more than 8 blastomeres), i.e. IUT.

6.Explain any two methods of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) that has  helped childless couples to bear children.  [All India 2008 C]
Ans.The two methods of ARTs (Assisted Reproductive Technologies) that has helped childless couples to bear children:
(i) Test-tube baby programme  .
In test-tube programme

  • Ova from the wife or a donor female and the sperms from the husband or a donor male is allowed to fuse under simulated conditions in the laboratory. It is called in vitro
  • Embryo is then transferred into the uterus or fallopian tube for further development.

The process of embryo transfer is done in following ways:
Zygote or embryo up to 8 blastomeres is transferred into Fallopian tube (ZIFT).
Embryo with more than 8 blastomeres is transferred into uterus (IUT).
(ii) ICSI It is carried but by directly injecting sperm into the ovum to form an embryo in the laboratory.
Embryo transfer is done later on.

 5 Marks Question

7.How are assisted reproductive technologies helpful to humans? How are ZIFT and
GIFT different from intra uterine transfers? Expla[Foreign 2009]
Ans.ARTs (Assisted Reproductive Technologies) are helpful to humans as they enable the infertile couple to have children. The ART techniques ZIFT and GIFT are different because    ZIFT (Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer) is related to embryo transfer in the test-tube programme.
In this technique, the zygote or embryo up to 8 blastomeres is transferred into the Fallopian tube.  GIFT (Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer) is the technique in which ovum collected from a donor  female is transferred into the Fallopian tube of another female, who cannot produce an ovum, but can  provide suitable conditions for fertilisation and further development.
Whereas, IUT (Intra Uterine Transfer) is the technique in which embryo of more than 8 blastomeres are transferred into the uterus.
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