Nature and Significance of Management Important Questions for CBSE Class 12  Nature of Management: Management as an Art, Science and Profession

1. Management as a Science
Science is a systematised body of knowledge that explains general truth or the operation of the general laws. Like science, management has systematised body of knowledge and has principles based on experiment and observation. However, the outcome of these principles cannot be accurately predicted, since it deals with human behaviour which is not constant. With the help of given characteristics we can make out, why management is considered as an inexact science.
(i) Management is regarded as a science because of
(a) Existence of systematised body of knowledge.
(b) Scientific methods of observation.
(c) Certain principles are universally accepted.
(ii) Management, not pure science but an inexact science Management can be called as an inexact science or social science also because the principles of management are not exact as the principles of Physics or Chemistry. Management principles are flexible and can be modified to suit different situations as it depends mostly on humans and the human behaviour is not same or constant in all situations.

2. Management as an Art
Like an art, management is a personalised and skillful application of existing knowledge to achieve desired results.
Mangement is regarded as an art because of:
(a) Existence of theoretical knowledge.
(b) Personalised application.
(c) Based on practice and creativity.

3. Management as a Profession
Like a profession, management has well defined body of knowledge but it is not considered a full fledged profession because it does not fulfil all the characteristics of profession.
(i) Management has certain characteristics of profession like:
(a) It has well defined body of knowledge.
(b) Existence of Management Association (AIMA).
(c) Must abide the code of conduct, more and more ethical practices to be followed.
(d) It has service motive, concerns over social responsibility is gaining importance.
(ii) Management not a full fledged profession
(a) One can be a manager in any organisation without a degree of MBA.
(b) It is not compulsory for managers to become members of AIMA. Thus, it is on the path of becoming profession and not considered as a full fledged profession.
(c) No ethical code of conduct formally applicable.

Previous Years Examination Questions

1 Mark Questions

1. Identify the nature of management when it is said to be a systematised body of knowledge that explains certain general truths.
(HOTS; Delhi 2012)
Ans. Management as a science.

2. Identify the nature of management when it is practised as personal application of existing knowledge to achieve desired results.
(All India 2012)
Ans. Management as an art.
3 Marks Questions

3. What is meant by management as an art ? Explain with the help of any three features. (Delhi 2010c)
Ans. Art is the skillful and personal application of existing knowledge to achieve desired goals. Management is said to be an art since, it satisfies the following features of an art:
(i) Manager practices the art of management  in day-to-day job of managing and enterprise on the basis of study, observation and experience.
(ii) Because of the availability of the theoretical knowledge of management, a manager is able to apply it in a personalised manner.
(iii) Art requires creativity, similarly manager also requires creativity to apply the acquired knowledge in a personalised and skillful  manner in real situations.

4. What is meant by management as a science ? Explain with the help of any three features.
Ans. Management as a Science Science is the systematised body of  knowledge which establishes the relationship between causes and their effects.
Management is regarded as a science because of the following features of the management:
(i) Existence of systematic body of knowledge Like science, management has its own theory and principles that have developed over a period of time. Thus, we can say, management has a systematised body of knowledge.
(ii) Scientific methods of observation Certain management principles are evolved from scientific methods of observation. The cause and effect relationship is the art of science but it is applicable in management also. Therefore, management principles are accurate and reliable.
(iii) Universally accepted principles Certain management principles are universally valid. The established principles of modern management have universal applicability. Principle  of division of labour and specialisation, unity of command, etc are accepted everywhere

5. ‘Management is the systematised body of knowledge that explains certain general  truths.’ Explain. (Delhi 2009c)
Ans. Management as a science. It is a systematised body of knowledge which explains certain general truths and it is based on logical observations, facts and events.
Management as a Science Science is the systematised body of  knowledge which establishes the relationship between causes and their effects.
Management is regarded as a science because of the following features of the management:
(i) Existence of systematic body of knowledge Like science, management has its own theory and principles that have developed over a period of time. Thus, we can say, management has a systematised body of knowledge.
(ii) Scientific methods of observation Certain management principles are evolved from scientific methods of observation. The cause and effect relationship is the art of science but it is applicable in management also. Therefore, management principles are accurate and reliable.
(iii) Universally accepted principles Certain management principles are universally valid. The established principles of modern management have universal applicability. Principle  of division of labour and specialisation, unity of command, etc are accepted everywhere.

6. Management is skillful and personal application of existing knowledge to achieve  desired results. Explain. (All India 2009c)
Ans. Management as an art. It is the skillful and personal application of existing knowledge to achieve desired results. It can be acquired through study, observation and experience.
Art is the skillful and personal application of existing knowledge to achieve desired goals. Management is said to be an art since, it satisfies the following features of an art:
(i) Manager practices the art of management  in day-to-day job of managing and enterprise on the basis of study, observation and experience.
(ii) Because of the availability of the theoretical knowledge of management, a manager is able to apply it in a personalised manner.
(iii) Art requires creativity, similarly manager also requires creativity to apply the acquired knowledge in a personalised and skillful  manner in real situations.

4/5 Marks Questions

7. Science is a systematised body of knowledge that explains certain general truths or  the operation of general laws? In the light of this statement, describe whether management is a science.
(Compartment 2014)
Ans. Management is a science but not an exact science. The reasons are:
(i) Systematised body of knowledge Like science, management is a systematic body of knowledge with its own theories and principles that have developed over a period of time.
So, this feature is present in management.
(ii) Principles based on observation and experimentation Like science, management principles are derived through observation and repeated experimentation.
So, this feature is present in management. However, since management deals with human beings, the outcome of these experiments are not capable of being accurately predicted.
(iii) Universal validity Principles of management like principles of pure science provide managers with certain standardised techniques that can be used in different situations. Since they have to be modified according to given situation, their application and use is not universal.
So, this feature of science is not fully present in management.

8.  ‘The skillful and personal application of existing knowledge to achieve desired  results is called art’. In the light of this statement, describe whether management is an art or not. (Compartment 2014)
or
‘Art is concerned with personal application of knowledge’. In the light of this statement, compare all the features of art with management and prove that it is an art. (Delhi 2010c)
Ans. Basic features of art are as follows:
(i) Existence of theoretical knowledge.
(ii) Personalised application.
(iii) Based on practice and creativity.
Management can be said an art, since it satisfies the following criteria:
(a) A successful manager practices the art of management in the day-to-day job of managing an enterprise which is based on study, observation and experience. There are lot of literature available in various areas of management like marketing, finance and human resource which the manager has to specialise in.
(b) There are various theories of management propounded by many management thinkers, which prescribe certain universal principles. A manager applies these scientific methods and body of knowledge to a given situation, issue or a problem in his own unique manner.
(c) A manager applies his acquired knowledge in a personalised and skillful manner in the light ofthe realities of a given situation. He is involved in the activities of the organisation, studies critical situations and apply his own theories in a given situation.
(d) Like any other art, a manager, after studying various situations, formulate his own theories for use  in given situation. This gives rise to different styles of management.

9. ‘Management is regarded as an art by some, as science or as inexact science by others. The truth seems to be somewhere in between.’
In the light of this statement, explain the true nature of management.
(All India 2011; Delhi 2011)
Ans. Management is an art as well as a science or an inexact science.
Management as an Art Management may be regarded as an art because of the following reasons:
(i) Existence of theoretical knowledge A successful manager practices the art of management in the day-to-day job of managing an enterprise based on study, observation and experience.
(ii) Personalised application The use of basic knowledge varies from individual to individual, therefore, it is a personalised concept, e.g. two dancers, two speakers will always differ in demonstrating their art.
(iii) Based on practice and creativity A good manager works through a combination of practice creativity, imagination, initiative and innovation. He uses tact and creativity to develop his own style. Thus, management is an art because it satisfies all the characteristics of an art.
Management as a Science Management may be regarded as a science because it fulfils the  following characteristics of science:
(i) Systematised body of knowledge As science, management has a systematised body of knowledge. It has its own theories and principles that have developed over a period of time. It also draws some principles from other disciplines such as economics, sociology, psychology and mathematics.
(ii) Principles based on scientific observation and experiments Like science, management principles are based on scientific enquiry and observations.
(iii) Universal validity and application Like science, principles of management are universally applicable. Thus, we can say that management is also a science.
However, the principles of management are not as exact as the principles of Physics or Chemistry. Management principles are flexible and can be modified to suit different situations. Thus, management can be called as an inexact science also. In the light of both the above statement, the true nature of management can be defined as, management is both an art and a science. Principles of management constitute the science of  management and the practice of management principles is the art of management.

10. Management is a profession like medical or legal profession. Do you agree with this statement? Give any four reasons in support of your answer. (All India 2011)
or
Is management a full fledged profession? Give any three reasons in support of your answer.                 (Delhi 2010)
Ans. No, management is not a full fledged profession like legal and medical profession because of the following reasons:
(i) Restricted entry The entry to any profession is restricted through a prescribed qualification. But there is no restriction on anyone being appointed as a manager in any business enterprise.
(ii) Professional association Though AIMA, is an association for management graduates, it is not obligatory for managers to get registered with any professional body like the Medical Council or Bar Council of India, which regulates the professional conduct of doctors and lawyers respectively.
(iii) Ethical code of conduct Legal and medical professions are bound by a code of conduct, which guides the behaviour of its members. AIMA has devised a code of conduct for Indian managers but there is no statutory backing for this code.
(iv) Service motive The motive of legal and medical profession is to serve their client’s interests by rendering dedicated and committed service. The basic purpose of management is to help the organisation to achieve its goals by providing good quality products at reasonable prices. A manager is expected to adopt the service motive but the basic motive remains profit maximisation.

11. Is management a science? Give any three reasons in support of your answer. (Delhi 2010)
Ans. Yes, management is a science but not an exact science. Science is the systematised body of knowledge which establishes the cause and effects relationship. Management is regarded as a science, because the following characteristics of science are applicable to management as well.
Management as a science  Management may be regarded as a science because it fulfils the  following characteristics of science:
(i) Systematised body of knowledge As science, management has a systematised body of knowledge. It has its own theories and principles that have developed over a period of time. It also draws some principles from other disciplines such as economics, sociology, psychology and mathematics.
(ii) Principles based on scientific observation and experiments Like science, management principles are based on scientific enquiry and observations.
(iii) Universal validity and application Like science, principles of management are universally applicable. Thus, we can say that management is also a science.
However, the principles of management are not as exact as the principles of Physics or Chemistry. Management principles are flexible and can be modified to suit different situations. Thus, management can be called as an inexact science also. In the light of both the above statement, the true nature of management can be defined as, management is both an art and a science. Principles of management constitute the science of  management and the practice of management principles is the art of management.

12. Is management an art? Give any three reasons in support of your answer. (Delhi 2010c)
Ans. Yes, management is an art, because practical applications of knowledge is an art and management is also the application of skill and knowledge to achieve the desired results.
Following features of art exist in management:
Management as an art  Management may be regarded as an art because of the following reasons:
(i) Existence of theoretical knowledge A successful manager practices the art of management in the day-to-day job of managing an enterprise based on study, observation and experience.
(ii) Personalised application The use of basic knowledge varies from individual to individual, therefore, it is a personalised concept, e.g. two dancers, two speakers will always differ in demonstrating their art.
(iii) Based on practice and creativity A good manager works through a combination of practice creativity, imagination, initiative and innovation. He uses tact and creativity to develop his own style. Thus, management is an art because it satisfies all the characteristics of an art.

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