NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 7 The p Block Elements

NCERT Solutions CBSE Sample Papers ChemistryClass 12 Chemistry


7.1.Why are pentahalides more covalent than trihalidcs ?
Ans. The group 15 elements have 5  e-1 s in their valence shell. It is difficult to lose 3e-1s to form E3+ and even more difficult to lose 5e-1  s to form E5+. Thus, they have very little tendency to form ionic compounds. Further, since the elements in +5 state have less tendency to lose e-1s than in the +3 state, elements in +5 state have more tendency to share e-1  s and hence pentahalides are more covalent than trihalides.

7.2. Why is BiH3 the strongest reducing agent amongst all the hydrides of Group 15 elements?
Ans. This is because as we move down the group, the size increases, as a result, length of E-H bond increases and its strength decreases, so that the bond can be broken easily to release H2 gas. Hence, BiH3 is the strongest reducing agent.

7.3.Why is N2 less reactive at room temperature?
Ans. Due to presence of triple bond between two N-atoms (N = N), the bond dissociation energy of N2 is very high. As a result, N2 becomes less reactive at room temperature.

7.4.Mention the conditions required to maximise the yield of ammonia.
Ans. Ammonia is prepared by Haber’s process as given below:

7.5.How does ammonia react with a solution of Cu2+?

7.6.What is the covalence of nitrogen in N2O5 ?
Ans. In N2O5 , each N-atom has four shared pairs of e-1 s as shown:

7.7.Bond angle in PH4+ is higher than that in PH3. Why?
Ans.P in PH3 is sp3-hybridized with 3 bond pairs and one lone pair around P. Due to stronger lp-bp repulsions than bp-bp repulsions, tetrahedral angle decreases from 109 °28? to 93.6 °. As a result, PH3 is pyramidal.  In  PH4+, there are 4 bp’s and no lone pair. As a result, there are only identical bp-bp repulsions so that PH4+ assumes tetrahedral geometry and the bond angle is 109 °28?.Hence, bond angle of PH4+ > bond angle of PH3

7.8.What happens when white phosphorus is heated with concentrated NaOH solution in an inert atmosphere of CO2 ?

7.9.What happens when PCl5 is heated?

7.10.Write a balanced equation for the hydrolytic reaction of PC is in heavy water.

7.11.What is the basicity of H3PO4?

7.12.What happens when H3PO4 is heated?
Ans. On heating, H3PO3  disproportionates to form PH3 and H3PO4 with O.S. of-3and + 5.

7.13.List the important sources of sulphur.
Ans. Sulphur mainly occurs in the combined states in earth’s crust in the form of sulphates and sulphides.
Sulphates : gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O); epsom (MgSO4.7H2O); baryte (BaSO4), etc.
Sulphides : Galena (PbS); zinc blende (ZnS); copper pyrites (CuFeS2); iron pyrites (FeS2), etc. Traces of sulphur occur’as H2S and in organic materials such as eggs, proteins, garlic, onion, mustard, hair and wool.

7.14.Write the order of thermal stability of the – hydrides of Group 16 elements.
Ans. The thermal stability of hydrides of group 16 elements decreases down the group. This is because down the group, size of the element (M) increases, M-H bond length increases and thus, stability of M-H bond decreases so that it can be broken down easily. Hence, we have order of thermal stability as H2O > H2S > H2Se > H2Te > H2PQ

7.15.Why is H2O a liquid and H2S a gas ?
Ans.Due to high electronegativity of O than S, H2O undergoes extensive intermolecular H-bonding. As a result, H2O exists as an associated molecule in which each O is tetrahedrally suiTOunded by four H2O molecules. Therefore, H2O is a liquid at room temperature.
On the other hand,H2S does not undergo H- bonding. It exists as discrete molecules which are held together by weak van der waals forces of attraction. A small amount of energy is required to break these forces of attraction. Therefore, H2S is a gas at room temperature.

7.16. Which of the following does not react with oxygen directly?  Zn, Ti, Pt, Fe
Ans. Pt being a noble metal does not react with oxygen directly. In contrast, Zn, Ti and Fe are active metals and hence they react with oxygen directly to form their oxides.

7.17.Complete the following reactions:
(i)C2H2  + O2 -> (ii) 4Al + 3 O2 ->

7.18.Why does O3 act as a powerful oxidising agent?
Ans. On heating, O3 readily decomposes to give O2 and nascent oxygen.
Since nascent oxygen is very reactive, therefore, O3 acts as a powerful oxidising agent.

7.19.How is O3 estimated quantitatively?
Ans. When O3 is treated with excess of KI solution buffered with borate buffer (pH = 9.2), I2 is liberated quantitatively.
The I2 thus liberated is titrated against a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate using starch as an indicator.

7.20.What happens when sulp’hur dioxide is passed through an aqueous solution of Fe(III) salt?
Ans. SO2 acts as a reducing agent and reduces aqueous solution of Fe (III)salt to Fe (II) salt.

7.21.Comment on the nature of two S-O bonds formed in S02 molecule. Are the two S-O bonds in this molecule equal ?
Ans. SO2 exists as an angular molecule with OSO bond angle of 119.5 °. It a resonance hybrid of two canonical-forms:

7.22.How is the presence of SO2 detected ?
Ans. SO2  is a pungent smelling gas. It can be detected by two test:

7.23.Mention three areas in which H2SO4 plays an important role.
Ans. (i) It is used in the manufacture of fertilizers such as (NH4)2 SO4  , calcium superphosphate.
(ii)It is used as an electrolyte in storage batteries.
(iii)It is used in petroleum refining, detergent industry and in the manufacture of paints, pigments and dyes.


7.1 Discuss the general characteristics of Group 15 elements with reference to their electronic configuration, oxidation state, atomic size, ionisation enthalpy and electronegativity.
Sol. In group 15 of the Periodic Table, the elements, nitrogen (7N), phosphorus (15P), arsenic (33As), antimony (51Sb) and bismuth (83Bi) are present. The elements of this group can exhibit various oxidation states ranging between -3 to + 5. Negative oxidation state will be exhibited when they combine with less electronegative element andpositive oxidation state will be exhibited with more electronegative element. Positive oxidation state becomes more favourable as we more down the group due to increasing metallic character & electropositivity. Although due to inert pair effect the stability of +5 state will also decrease. The only stable compound of Bi (V) is BiF5.
The atomic (covalent) and ionic radii (in a particular oxidation state) of the elements of nitrogen family (group 15) are smaller than the corresponding elements of carbon family (group 14). On moving down the group, the covalent and ionic radii (in a particular oxidation state) increase with increase in atomic number. There is a considerable increase in covalent radius from N to P. However, from As to Bi, only a small increase is observed.
As the size increases on moving down the group, the ionisation enthalpy increases. The ionisation enthalpy of nitrogen group elements is more than the corresponding elements of oxygen group. This is because of more stable half filled outermost p- subshell of nitrogen group elements. Electronegativity decreases down the group with increase in atomic size.

7.2 Why does the reactivity of nitrogen differ from phosphorus?
Sol. N2 exist as a diatomic molecule containing triple bond.batoeen two N-atoms. Due to the presence —of triple bond betweep the two N-atoms, the bond dissociation energy is large (941 .4 kJ mol-1 ). As aresult of this N2 is inert and unreactive whereas, phosphorus exists as a tetratomic molecule, containg P – P single bond. Due to the presence of single bond, the bond dissociation energy is weaker (213 kJmol-1 ) than N a N triple bond (941 .4 kJ mol-1 ) and moreover due to presence of angular strain in P4 tetrahedra. As a result of this, phosphorus is much more reactive than nitrogen.

7.3 Discuss the trends in chemical reactivity of group 15 elements.
Sol. Hydrides: All elements of group 15 form gaseous hydrides of the type MH3.
In all the hydrides the central atom is sp3 hybridized and their shape is pyramidal due to presence of lone pair of electrons.
(a)The basic strength of the hydrides decreases as we move down the group.
Thus, NH3  is the strongest base.
NH3 > PH3 > AsH3 > SbH3
(b)The thermal stability of the hydrides decreases as the atomic size increases, i.e., the M – H bond strength decreases which means reducing character increases.
(c)In the liquid state, the molecules of NH3are associated due to hydrogen bonding. The molecules of other hydrides are not associated.
(d)NH3 is soluble in water whereas other hydrides are insoluble.
(e)All the hydrides, except NH3, are strong reducing agents and react with metal ions (Ag+, Cu2+, etc.) to form phosphides, arsenides or antimonides.
Halides: The elements of group 15 form two series of halides MX3 and MX5.
(a)All the elements of the group form trihalides. The ionic character of trihalides increases as we move down the group. Except NCl3 all the trihalides are hydrolysed by water. This is due to the absence of d-orbitals in nitrogen.
(b)PF3 is not hydrolysed because fluorine being more electronegative than oxygen forms more stable bonds with phosphorus than P – O bonds.
(c)N cannot form NX5 because of non-availability of rforbitals. Bi cannot form BiX3 because of reluctance of 6s electrons of Bi to participate in bond formation.
(d)The hybridisation of M in MX3 is sp3 and shape is pyramidal. M in MX5 is sp3 as hybridised and shape is trigonal pyramidal. The axial bonds in MX5 are weaker and longer, So MX5 are less stable and decompose on heating eg:
(a)Nitrogen forms a number of oxides. The rest of the members (P, As, Sb and Bi) of the group form two types of oxides : E203 and  E2O5.
(b)The reluctance of P, As, Sb and Bi to enter into pπ -pπ multiple bonding leads to cage structures of their oxides and they exist as dimers, E4O6 and E5O10.
(c)The basic nature of die oxides increases with increase in atomic number of the element. Thus, the oxides of nitrogen (except N20 and NO), P (III) and As (III) are acidic, Sb (III) oxide is amphoteric and Bi (III) oxide is basic.

7.4 Why does NH3 form hydrogen bond but PH3 does not?
Sol. Nitrogen has an electronegativity value 3.0, which is much higher than that of H (2.1). As a result, N – H bond is quite polar and hence NH3 undergoes intermolecular H – bonding.
Phosphorus have an electronegativity value 2-1. Thus, P – H bond is not polar and hence PH3 does not undergo H – bonding.

7.5 How is nitrogen prepared in the laboratory? Write the chemical equations of the reactions . involved.
Sol. In laboratory, nitrogen is prepared by heating an equimolar aqueous solution of ammonium chloride and sodium nitrite. As a result of double decomposition reaction, ammonium nitrite is formed. Ammonium nitrite is unstable and decompose to form nitrogen gas.

7.6 How is ammonia manufactured industrially?
Sol. Commercially, by Haber’s process.
iron oxide, K2O, Al203  The optimum conditions for the production of NH3 are pressure of 200 atm and temperature of 100K.

7.7 Illustrate how copper metal can give different products on reaction with HN03.
Sol. On heating with dil HN03, copper gives copper nitrate and nitric oxide.

7.8 Give the resonating structures of N02 and N2O5.
Sol. Resonating structures of N02 are:

7.9 The HNH angle value is higher than HPH, H AsH and HSbH angles. Why?
(Hint: Can be explained on the basis of sp3 hybridisation in NH3 and only s-p bonding , between hydrogen and other elements of the group).
Sol. In all these cases, the central atom is sp3 hybridized. Three of the four  sp3 orbitals form three σ-bonds, while the fourth contains the lone pair of electrons. On moving down from N to Sb, the electronegativity of the central atom goes on decreasing. As a result of this, bond  pairs of electrons lie away and away from the central atom. This is because of the force of repulsion between the adjacent bond pairs goes on decreasing and the bond angles keep on decreasing from NH3 to SbH3. Thus, bond angles are in the order:

7.10 Why does R3P = O exist but R3N = O does not (R = alkyl group)?
Sol. Nitrogen does not contains d-orbitals. As a result, it cannot expand its covalency beyond four and cannot form pÏ€ – dÏ€ multiple bonds. In constrast, P contains the d-orbitals, and can expand its covalency beyond 4 and can form pÏ€-dÏ€ multiple bonds.  Hence R3P = O exist but R3N = O does not.

7.11 Explain why NH3 is basic while BiH3 is only feebly basic.
Sol. In both NH3 and BiH3, N and Bi have a lone paif of electrons on the central atom and hence should behave as Lewis bases. But NH3 is much more basic than BiH3. Since the atomic size of N is much smaller than that of Bi, therefore, electron density on N-atom is much higher than that on Bi-atom. Thus, the tendency of N in NH3 to donate its lone pair of electrons is much more in comparison to tendency of Bi in BiH3. Hence, NH3 is more basic than BiH3.

7.12 Nitrogen exists as diatomic molecule and phosphorus as P4. Why?
Sol. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic molecule having a triple bond between the two N-atoms, This is due its small size that it forms pÏ€-pÏ€ multiple bonds with itself and with carbon /oxygen as well. On the other hand, phosphorus due to its larger size does not form multiple pÏ€-pÏ€ bonds with itself. It prefers to form P – P single bonds and hence it exists as tetrahedral P4 molecule.

7.13 Write main differences between the properties of white phosphorus and red phosphorus.
Structure of white and red phosphorus are given below:

7.14 Why does nitrogen show catenation properties less than phosphorus?
Sol. The extent of catenation depends upon the strength of the element – element bond. The N – N bond strength (159 kJ mol-1 ) is weaker than P – P bond strength (213 kJ mol-1 ). Thus, nitrogen shows less catenation properties than phosphorus.

7.15 Give the disproportionation reaction of H3 P03 .
Sol. On heating, H3 P04 undergoes self – oxidation reduction, i.e:, disproportionation to form PH3 .

7.16 Can PCl5 act as an oxidising as well as a reducing agent Justify.
Sol. The oxidation state of P in PCl5  is+5. Since P has five electrons in its valence shell, therefore, it cannot donate electron and cannot increase its oxidation state beyond + 5, Thus, PCl5 cannot act as a reducing agent. It can act as oxidizing agent by itself undergoing reduction.

7.17 Justify the placement of O, S, Se, Te and Po in the same group’of the periodic table in terms of electronic configuration, oxidation state and hydride formation.
Sol. (1)Electronic configuration:
O (At. no. = 8) = [He] 2s2 2p4
S (At. no. = 16) = [Ne] 3s2 3p4
Se (At. no. = 34) = [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4
Te (At. no. = 52) = [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4 ,
Po (At. no. = 84) = [Xe] 4f14  5d10 6s2 6p4 ,
Thus, all these elements have the same ns2 np4 (n = 2 to 6) valence shell electronic configuration, hence are justified to be placed in group 16 of the Periodic Table.
(2)Oxidation state : Two more electrons are needed to acquire the nearest noble gas configuration. Thus, the minimum oxidation state of these elements should be – 2. O  and to some extent S show – 2 oxidation state. Other element being more electropositive than O and S, do not show negative oxidation state. As these contain six electrons, thus, maximum oxidation state shown by them is+ 6. Other oxidation state shown by them are + 2 and + 4. O do not  show+4 and + 6 oxidation state, due to the  absence of d-orbitals.  Thus, on the basis of maximum and minimum oxidation states, these elements are justified to be placed in the same group 16 of the periodic table.
(3)Hydride formation: All these elements share two of their valence electrons with  1 s- orbital of hydrogen to form hydrides of  the general formula EH2, i.e., H20, H2S, H2Se, H2Te and H2Po. Thus, on the basis of hydride formation, these elements are justified to be placed in the same group 16 of the Periodic Table.

7.18 Why is dioxygen a gas but sulphur a solid?
Sol. Due to the small size and high electronegativity, oxygen forms pÏ€- pÏ€ multiple bonds. As a result, oxygen exists as diatomic (O2) molecules. These molecules are held together by weak van der Waal’s forces of attraction which can be overcome by collisions of the molecules at room temperature. Therefore, O2 is a gas at room temperature. Due to its bigger size and lower electronegativity, sulphur does not form pn-pn multiple bonds. It prefers to form S – S single bonds. S – S single bond is stronger then O-O single bond. Thus, sulphur has higher tendency for catenation than oxygen. Due to higher tendency for catenation and lower tendency for pÏ€ – pÏ€ multiple bonds sulphur exits as octa-atomic (Sg) molecule. Due to bigger size, the force of attraction holding the Sg molecules together are much stronger which cannot be overcome by collisions of molecules at room temperature. Therefore, sulphur is solid at room temperature.

7.19 Knowing the electron gain enthalpy values of O—>O and O—>O2- as -141 and 702 kJ mol-1 respectively, how can you account for [he formation of a large number of oxides having O2- species and not O?
Sol. Let us consider the reaction of oxygen with monopositve metal, we can have two compounds. MO(O in -1 state) and M2O (O in -2 state). The energy required for formation of O-2 is compensated by increased coulombic attraction between M+ and O-2. Coulombic force of attraction, FA is proportional to product of charges on ions i.e.
where q1 and q2 are charges on ions and r is distance between ions. Same logic can be applied if metal is dispositive.

7.20 Which aerosols deplete ozone?
Sol. Aerosols like chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s), i.e., freon (CCl2F2), depletes the ozone layer by supplying Cl* free radicals which convert O3 to O2

7.21 Describe the manufacture of H2SO4 by contact process?
Sol. Preparation of sulphuric acid:By Contact Process: Burning of sulphur or sulphide ores in presence of oxygen to produce SO2. Catalytic oxidation of SO2 with O2to give SO3  in the presence of V2O5.
Then SO3 made to react with sulphuric acid of suitable normality to obtain a thick oily liquid called oleum.
Then oleum is diluted to obtain sulphuric acid of desired concentration.
The sulphuric acid obtained by contact process is 96-98% pure.

7.22 How is SO2 an air pollutant?
Sol. (1) SO2  dissolves in moisture present in air to form H2SO4 which damages building materials especially marble (acid – rain).- CaCO3 + H2SO3 ——->CaSO3 + H20 + CO2
(2)It corrodes metals like Fe and steel. It also brings about fading and deterioration of fabrics, leather, paper, etc., and affecting the colour of paints.
(3)Even in low concentration (= 0.03 ppm), it has damaging effect on the plants. If exposed for a long time, i.e., a few days or weeks, it slows down the formation of chlorophyll i. e., loss of green colour. This is called chlorosis.
(4)It is strongly irritating to the respiratory track. It cause throat and eye irritation, resulting into cough, tears and redness in eyes. It also cause breathlessness and effects larynx i. e. „ voice box.

7.23 Why are halogens strong oxidising agents?
Sol. The halogens are strong oxidising agents due to low bond dissociation enthalpy, high electronegativity and large negative electron gain enthalpy.

7.24 Explain why fluorine forms only one oxoacid, HOF.
Sol. Cl, Br and I form four series of oxo acids of general formula HOX, HOXO, HOXO2, and H0XO3. In these oxo-adds, the oxidation states of halogens are + 1, + 3, + 5, and + 7 respectively. However, due to high electronegativity, small size and absence of d-orbitals, F does not form oxo-acids with + 3, + 5 and + 7, oxidation states. It just forms one oxo-acid (HOF).

7.25 Explain why inspite of nearly the same electronegativity, nitrogen forms hydrogen bonding while chlorine does not.
Sol. Both .nitrogen (N) and chlorine (Cl) have electronegativity of 3.0. However, only nitrogen is involved in the hydrogen bonds (e.g., NH3) and not chlorine. This is due to smaller atomic size of nitrogen (atomic radius =70 pm) as compared to chlorine (atomic radius = 99) pm), therefore, N can cause greater polarisation of N-H bond than Cl in case of Cl—H bond.Consequently, N atom is involved in hydrogen bonding and not chlorine.

7.26 Write two uses of ClO2
Sol. (1) ClO2 is an excellent bleaching agent. It is 30 times stronger bleaching agent then the Cl2. It is used as a bleaching agerit for paper pulp in paper industry and in textile industry. (2) ClO2 is also a powerful oxidising agent and chlorinating agent. It acts as a germicide for disinfecting water. It is used for purifying drinking water.

7.27 Why are halogens coloured?
Sol. The halogens are coloured because their  molecules absorb light in the visible region. As a result of which their electrons get excited to higher energy levels while the remaining light is transmitted. The color of halogens is the color of this transmitted light.

7.28 Write the reactions of F2 and Cl2 with water.

7.29 How can-you prepare Cl2 from HCl and HCl from CI2? Write reactions only.

7.30 What inspired N. Bartlett for carrying out reaction between Xe and PtF6?
Sol. N. Bartlett observed that PtF6 reacts with O2to give an compound O2+ [PtF6].
PtF6 (g) + O2 (g) ——–>O2+[PtF6]
Since the first ionization enthalpy of Xe (1170 kJ  mol-1  )is fairly close to that of 02 molecule (1175 kJ mol-1 ), he thought that PtF6  should also oxidise Xe to Xe+. This inspired Bartlett to carryout the reaction between Xe and PtF6. When PtF6 and Xe were made to react, a rapid reaction took place and a red solid, Xe+[PtF6] was obtained.

7.31 What are the oxidation states of phosphorus in  the following: –
(i) H3PO3 (ii)PCl3
(iii) Ca3P2(iv)Na3PO4
(v) POF3

7.32 Write balanced equations for the following:
(i) NaCl is heated witlrsulphuric acid in the presence of MnO2
(ii) Chlorine gas is passed into a solution of Nal in water.

7.33 How are xenon fluorides XeF2, XeF4 and XeF6  obtained?
Sol. XeF2 , XeF4  and XeF6 are obtained by direct reaction between Xe and F2 as follows:

7.34 With what neutral molecule is CIO isoelectronic? Is that molecule a Lewis base?
Sol. CIO has 17 + 8 +1 = 26 electrons.Also, OF2 has (8 + 2 x 9) = 26 electrons, and ClF has (17 + 9) = 26 electrons.Out of these, ClF can act as Lewis base. The chlorine atom has three lone pair of electrons which it donates to form compounds like ClF3, ClF5 and ClF7

7.35 How are XeO3  and XeOF4prepared?

7.36 Arrange the following in the order of property  indicated for each set: –
(i) F2 , Cl2 , Br2 , I2 – increasing bond dissociation enthalpy.
(ii) HF, HCI, HBr, HI – increasing acid . strength.
(iii) NH3, PH3, AsH3, SbH3, BiH3 – increasing Sol. base strength.
Sol. (i) Bond dissociation enthalpy decreases as the bond distance increases from F2 to I2 due to increase in the size of the atom, on moving from F to I.
F – F bond dissociation enthalpy is smaller then the Cl – Cl and even smaller than Br – Br. This is because F atom is very small and have large electron-electron repulsion among the lone pairs of electrons in F2 molecule where they are much closer to each other than in case of Cl2. The increasing order of bond dissociation enthalphy is I, < F2 < Br2 < Cl2
(ii) Acid strength of HF, HCI, HBr and HI depends upon their bond dissociation enthalpies. Since the bond dissociation enthalpy of H – X bond decreases from H – F to H-l as the size of atom increases from F to I.
Thus, the acid strength order is HF < HCI < HBr < HI
The weak acidic strength of HF is also due to H-bonding due to which release of H+   becomes difficult.
(iii) NH3, PH3, ASH3, SbH3 and BiH3 behaves as Lewis bases due to the presence of lone pair of electrons on the central atom. As we move from N to Bi, size of atom increases. Electron density on central atom decreases and hence the basic strength decreases from NH3 to BiH3. Thus basic strength order is BiH3<SbH3<AsH3<PH3<NH3

7.37 Which one of the following does not exist ?
(i)XeOF4 (ii)NeF2
(iii)XeF4 (iv)XeF6
Sol. NeF2 does not exist. This is because the sum of first and second ionization enthalpies of Ne are much higher than those of Xe. Consequently, F2 can oxidise Xe to Xe2+ but cannot oxidise Ne to Ne2+.

7.38 Give the formula and describe the structure of a noble gas species which is isostructural with:  (i) ICI4 (ii) IBr2 (iii) Br03
Ans.(i) ICI4: In ICI4, central atom I has seven valence electrons and one due to negative charge. Four out of these 8 electrons are utilized in forming four single bonds with four Cl atoms. Four remaining electrons constitutes the two lone pairs. It is arranged in square planar structure. ICI4 has 36 valence electrons. A noble gas species having 36 valence electrons is XeF4 (8 + 4 x 7 = 36). XeF4 is also square planar.
(ii) IBr2: In IBr2, central atom I has eight electrons. Two of these are utilized in forming two single bonds with two Br atom. Six remaining electrons constitutes three lone pairs. It is arranged in linear structure.
IBr2 has 22 valence electrons. A noble gas species having 22 valence electrons is XeF2 (8+2 x 7=22).
XeF2 is also linear.
(iii) In Br03 ion the central Br atom has 8 valence electrons (7 +1). Out of these, it shares 4 with two atoms of O forming Br = O bonds. Out of the remaining four .electrons, 2 are donated to the third O atom which accounts for its negative charge. The remaining 2 electrons constitute one lone pair. In order to minimise the force of repulsion, the structure of Br03 ion must be pyramidal. Br03 ion has (7 + 3 x 6 + 1) = 26 valence electrons and is isoelectronic as well as iso-structural with noble gas species Xe03 which has also 26(8 + 3 x 6) electrons.

7.39 Why do noble gases have comparatively large atomic sizes?
Sol. This is because noble gases have only van der Waal’s radii while others have covalent radii, van der Waal’s radii are larger than covalent radii.

7.40 List the uses of neoirand argon gases.
Sol. Uses of Neon Neon is used in discharge tubes and fluorescent bulbs for advertisement display purposes. Glow’of different colours ‘neon signs’ can be produced by mixing neon with other gases. Neon bulbs and used in botanical gardens and in green’ houses.
Uses of Argon Argon is used mainly to provide an inert atmosphere in high temperature metallurgical processes such as arc welding of metals and alloys. In the laboratory, it is used for handling substance which are air sensitive.
It is used in filling incandescent and fluorescent lamps where its presence retards the sublimation of the filament and thus increases the life of the lamp.It is also used in “neon signs”for obtaining lights of different colours.

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