Motivation And Emotion- CBSE Notes for Class 11 Psychology
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• The concept of motivation is central in our attempt to understand behaviour and its causes. The term itself comes from the latin word movere, meaning ‘to move’. Motivation is a process that influences the direction, persistence and vigor of goal directed behaviour.
• The process of motivation functions in a cycle i.e., Need â€” » Drive â€” » Arousal â€” » Goal Directed Behaviour – » Achievement – » Reduction of Arousal – » Need.
• Motives can be classified as Biological motives and Psychological motives.
• Biological motives emphasise on inborn, biological causes like Neurotransmitters, hormones and thenervous system.
• Psychological motives emphasise on Socio-environmental factors, e.g,, Achievement . need, affiliation, power, curiosity, etc.
• Abraham Maslow, a humanistic theorist, proposed a broad motivational model. He believed that Psychology’s other perspectives ignore a key human motive our striving for personal growth. He proposed the concept of a need hierarchy. To Maslow, self actualisation, which represents the need to fulfil our potential, is the ultimate human motive.
• When individual’s needs and motives are not fulfilled then frustration, conflict and pressure become internal sources of stress and disturb the equilibrium of the individual.
• Need refers to a physical state involving any lack or defeat within the organism.
• Drive refers to an around condition of the organism based upon deprivation.
• Psychological motives, in contrast to biological motives, are determined primarily by learning. They appear later in development, and become important after basic needs are satisfied.
• Aggression, defined as behaviour intended to injure another person or to destroy property, may be primarily hostile-aimed at inflicting injury-or instrumental -aimed at goals other than the victim’s suffering.
• Emotions can serve as motives, goals, or accompaniments of motivated behaviour. Intense emotions involve widespread bodily changes that result from activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The James-Lange theory proposes that feedback from these bodily responses determines the quality of an emotion. Canon’s theory argues that emotions and autonomic responses occur simultaneously one is not the cause of the other.
• Although feedback from autonomic responses is important, attempts to differentiate between different emotions, such as fear and anger, on the basis of physiological responses, have had little success. The individual’s appraisal of the emotion-producing situation largely determines the quality of the emotion.
• The cognitive-physiological theory proposes that emotional states are a function of the interaction of cognitive factors and physiological arousal experiments in which subjects were injected with epinephrine show the importance of cognitive factors in labeling emotional states.
• Some forms of emotional expression appear to be in borm or to develop through maturation. But learning is important in modifying emotional expression to conform to the patterns approved by the culture.
• Existentialism is a school of thought that led stress on the question of human existence. It asserts that the ultimate and unquestionable reality is not consciousness but existence. Unlike many organisms in the animal kingdom, human beings are bom in society and their existence depends on the assistance available from the primary caretakers.
• Competence means a person’s ability to perform a given task. In other way we can say that it is the state of being adequately or well qualified or having the ability to perform a specific task skillfully.
• Self-efficacy is an individual’s trust on his/her own capabilities to produce designated levels of performance. Having a strong sense of self-efficacy enhances human accomplishments and well-being in many ways. Self-efficacy enhances intrinsic interest and facilitates deep engagement in activities.
Words That Matter
1. Motivation: The process of persistent behaviour directed towards a specific goal, which results from certain driving forces, is called motivation.
2. Need: Lack or deficit of some necessity.
3. Drive : A state of tension or arousal produced by a need.
4. Instinct : Inborn patterns of behaviour that are biologically determined rather than learned.
5. Affiliation: Seeking other human beings and wanting to be close to them both physically and psychologically is called affiliation.
6. Need for power: Ability of a person to produce intended effects on the behaviour and emotions of another person.
7. Need for achievement : It energises and directs behaviour as well as influences the perception of situations.
8. Frustration: It occurs when an anticipated desirable goal is not attained and the motives is blocked. It is an aversive state and no one likes it.
9. Conflict: Choosing between contradictory needs, desires, motives, or demands.
10. Emotion: It is stirred up state. A complex pattern of arousal that involves physiological activation, conscious awareness of feeling, and a specific cognitive label that describes the process.
11. Mood : Affective state of long duration but of lesser intensity that emotion.
12. James Lange Theory : A theory of emotion that holds that body’s reaction to a stimulus produces emotional perceptional; the overt feeling of emotion is a result of the bodily changes.
13. Canon-Bard Theory: This theory claims that the entire process of emotion is mediated by thalamus which after perception of the emotion provoking stimulus, conveys this information simultaneously to the cerebral cortex and to the skeletal muscles and sympathetic nervous system.
14. Anxiety : It is a condition that an individual develops in case of failure to adopt an appropriate ego defence.
15. Emotional intelligence : The ability to monitor one’s own and other’s emotions to discriminate among them and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions.