Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments – CBSE Notes for Class 12 History

• In the reconstruction of the history of India from 600 BCE to 600 CE, the historians took the invaluable information from Buddhist, Jain and Brahmanical texts.
• Besides these texts, temples, stupas, monuments, etc also provide authentic information.
• The rulers of Bhopal, Shahjahan Begum and her successor played a significant role in the preservation of the Sanchi Stupa.
• Annans the new sect, that emerged in India in 6th century BCE. Buddhism and Jainism were most popular.
• Lord Mahavira is regarded as the real founder of Jainism.
• The founder of Buddhism was Lord Buddha.
• Jainism remained continued to India, but Buddha spread to the other countries.
• Ashoka and Kanishka of Buddhism in distant land.
• Both Jainism and Buddhism gave a rich legacy in different fields of Indian Society.
• During this period, i.e., 600 BCE to 600 CE, two Brahamanical sects. Vaishanavism and Shaivism made considerable progress.
1. Vedic Sanskrit: A special kind of Sanskrit in which hyms and verses were composed.
2. Rajsuya Yajna: A special kind of yajna in which sacrifices are performed by chiefs and kings who depended on the Brahaman to conduct these rituals.
3. Tripitaka: Three books of Buddhist sacred text.
4. Sanghe: Monastic order.
5. Tirthankar: A great teacher in Jainism.
6. Stupa: A Sanskrit word which means a heap. Stupa originated as a simple semi-circular mound of earth, later called ande.
Time Line:
1. 468 B.C.   Mahavira passed away and attained Nirwan at the age of 72.
2. First century B.C.E.  Jainism enjoyed the patronage of the Kalinga king Kharavela.
3. Fourth century B.C.E.  Jainism spread to Kalinga in Orissa (Odisha).
4„ 563 B.C.E.  Gautama Buddha was bom in a Shakya Kshatriya family in Kapilavastu.
5. 487 B.C.E.  The First Buddhist Council.
6. 387 B.C.E.  The Second Buddhist Council.
7. 251 B.C.  The Third Buddhist Council.

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