Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark each)
Question.l What were Sumptuary Laws ?
Answer. The laws which tried to control the behaviour of those considered socially inferiors, preventing them from wearing certain clothes consuming certain food and beverages.
Question.2 Name any four materials which could only be used by the royals under the ‘Sumptuary Laws’.
Question.3 Who were Sans culottes ?
Answer. They were the members of Jacobin clubs who wore the fashionable knee breeches to distinguish themselves from the aristocracy. San culottes literally meant â€˜those without knee breeches.’
Question.4 What were the main motives of the ‘Sumptuary Laws’?
- The laws tried to control, the behaviour of those who were considered social inferiors.
- To set up a dress code.
Question.5 “The end of sumptuary laws did not mean that everyone in European societies could now dress in the same way.”Explain by giving examples.
- Difference in earning, rather than Sumptuary laws, now defined what the rich and the poor could wear.
- Styles of clothing also emphasised differences between men and women.
Women in Victorian England were groomed from childhood to be docile and dutiful, submissive and obedient. Norms of clothing reflected these ideals. From childhood, girls were tightly laced up and dressed in stays.
Question.6 Mention any two materials which were used to manufacture clothes before the 17th century.
Answer. Flax and linen.
Question.7 What was the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the clothing in Europe?
- Cotton clothes became more accessible to a wider section of the people in Europe.
- With the introduction of the artificial fibres, clothes became cheaper.
Question.8 Why was there a change in the clothing patterns of women during the two World Wars ?
- The wars forced the women to work.
in factories. As they went out to work they needed clothes that were comfortable and convenient.
- As now, they were working women, they also stopped wearing jewellery and luxurious clothes.
Question.9 What was the importance of turban in the Indian dress code ?
- It was a source of protection from the heat.
- It was also a sign of respect-ability and could not be removed at will.
Question.10 â€˜A nationalist feeling swept across India by the late 19th century, Indians began devising cultural symbols that would express the unity of the nation.’ Mention any two such cultural symbols used by the Indians.
- A national style of art was adopted.
- Poets wrote national songs.
Question.11 “During the colonial period there were significant changes in male and female clothing in India.”Mention any two factors responsible for this.
- There was a change in clothing due to western influence and missionary activities.
- It was also due to the efforts by Indians to fashion clothing styles that embodied an indigenous tradition and culture
Question.12 Which was the first community to adapt a western-style of clothing? Give reason.
Answer. Parsis of western India were among the first to adapt a western-style of clothing.
- They were more close to the Britishers due to their trade links.
- Western clothes were a sign of modernity and progress.
Question.13 What was the cause of tension between Shanar caste people with that of the Nairs ?
- The main cause of tension was over the issue of wearing clothes. The Nairs were people of upper caste whereas Shanars of lower caste.
- During that period lower caste people were not allowed to cover their upper bodies.
Question.14 What was â€˜shoe respect’ rule? Name two Governor Generals who insisted on this rule.
Answer. According to the â€˜shoe respect’ rule it was insisted that Indians should take their shoes off as a sign of respect before appearing in courts or in front of British officials.
Lord Dalhousie and Governor General Amherst insisted on this rule.
Question.15 How did the political control of India help the British Government?
- Indian peasants could be forced to grow crops such as indigo, and cheap British manufacture easily replaced coarser Indian one.
- Large number of Indian weavers and spinners were left without work, and important textile weaving centres such as Murshidabad, Machili- patnam and Surat declined as demand fell.
Question.16 What was Rabindranath Tagore’s opinion regarding the national dress?
Answer. The Tagore family of Bengal experimented in 1870s with designs for a national dress for both men and women in India. Rabindranath Tagore suggested that instead of combining Indian and European dresses, India’s national dress should combine elements of Hindu and Muslim dresses. Thus, the chapkan (a long buttoned coat) was considered the most suitable dress for men.
Question.17 How were clothes used by Gandhiji during the national freedom for struggle?
Answer. Gandhiji made spinning on the charkha and the daily use of Khadi, or coarse cloth made from homespun yam, very powerful symbols. These were not only symbols of self-reliance but also of resistance to the use of British mill- made cloth.
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]
Question.1 What were the â€˜Sumptuary Laws’ in France?
Answer. From about 1294 to the time of the French Revolution in 1789, the people of France were expected to strictly follow some dress codes. These dress codes or laws related to wearing of clothes were known as â€˜Sumptuary Laws’. Following were the major features of these laws:
- The laws tried to control the behaviour of those considered social inferiors, preventing them from wearing certain clothes, consuming certain foods and beverages (usually this referred to alcohol) and hunting game in certain areas.
- In medieval France, the items of clothing a person could purchase per
Year was regulated, not only by income
but also by social rank.
- The material to be used for clothing was also legally prescribed. Only royalty could wear ^expensive materials like ermine and fur or silk, velvet and brocade. Other classes were debarred from clothing themselves with materials that were associated with the aristocracy.
Question. 2 Give any two examples of the ways in which European dress codes were different from Indian dress codes.
Answer. In different cultures, specific items of clothing often convey different messages. This was also true in case of European dress codes and Indian dress codes.
- Turban and hat: According to western traditions, a hat had to be removed before social superiors as a sign of respect. But in India, the turban was not just for protection from the heat but it was a sign of respectability and could not be removed at will. The British felt offended if the Indians did not take off their turbans when they met British officials.
- Use of shoes: When the British established their rule in India, they insisted that the Indians should take off their shoes as a sign of respect to the British officials. Many Indians, especially the government servants, were increasingly uncomfortable with such rule.
Question. 3 â€˜Though there were no formal sumptuary laws in India but it had its own strict social codes of food and dress’. Explain by giving examples.
- During the 18th and 19th centuries the caste system in India was very rigid. The caste system clearly defined what subordinate and dominant caste Hindus should wear, eat, etc. and these codes had the force of law. No caste or community was allowed to overlook these codes. For example, when the lower caste people belonging to Shanar caste tried to cover their upper body they were attacked by Nairs, an upper caste.
- When in 1820 Shanar women tried to wear tailored blouses and clothes theyâ€˜were attacked by the Nairs. Even complaints were filed in the court against this dress change and Governor of Travancore issued a pro ¬clamation ordering Shanar women to abstain in future from covering the upper parts of the body.
- The abolition of slavery in travancore in 1855 led to even more frustration among the upper castes. In October 1859, riots broke out and Governor was forced to issue proclamation permitting Shanar women, whether Christian or Hindu to wear a jacket or cover their upper bodies in any manner whatever but not like the women of high castes.
Question.4 Explain the reasons for the changes in clothing patterns and materials in the 18th century,
- Revolution: There were many restrictions on the French people regarding the dress codes. These were known as sumptuary laws. But after the French Revolution of 1789 many restrictions imposed on clothes were lifted.
- Trade: There was also a change in the clothing pattern because of trade. Now people had more choices and variety of clothes.
- Spread of democratic ideas: During the 18th century democratic ideas were also spreading in different parts of the world. Democracy Jay stress on equality as a result of which all citizens were given the choice to wear whatever they like.
- War: Clothes got shorter, simpler and less colourful because of the two world wars.
Question.5 Explain the impact of World Wars on the clothing pattern of women.
- Women and work: Before the First World War most of the women in Europe were not working in factories.
But by 1917, more than 7,00,000 women in Britain were employed in ammunition factories. As they were going to work they needed clothes that were comfortable and convenient. They started wearing a working uniform of blouse and trouser. Clothes became plainer and simpler. Skirts became shorter.
- No jewellery: Most of the working women stopped wearing jewellery and luxurious clothes.
- Change in school dress: Even schools started emphasising the importance of plain dressing, and. discouraged ornamentation. With the introduction of gymnastics and games women started wearing clothes that did not hamper movement.
- Change in colour: Before the war people used to wear bright coloured clothes but during the war bright colours faded from sight and only sober colours were worn. Thus clothes became plainer and simpler.
Question.6 How did the French Revolution end all the distinctions imposed by the Sumptuary Laws? [CBSE 2015]
- People started wearing clothing that
was loose and comfortable.
- Blue, red and white colours became popular and were considered the signs of patriotism.
- Now the difference in dress was based on the earnings.
- Other political symbols too became a part of dress for example a red cap symbolised liberty.
Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]
Question.1 Mention any three restrictions imposed on the common people of France from about 1294 to 1789.
- Dress codes were sometimes imposed upon members of different layers of society through actual laws which were spelt out in some detail.”
- In medieval France, the items of clothing a person could purchase per year was regulated, not only by income but also by social rank.
- The material to be used for clothing was also legally prescribed. Only royalty could wear expensive materials like ermine and fur, or silk, velvet and brocade. Other classes were debarred from clothing themselves with materials that were associated with the aristocracy.
Question.2 Why did Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of clothing the nation in Khadi became an appeal only to some sections of Indians ?
Answer. Mahatma Gandhi’s dream was to clothe the whole nation in Khadi. Though he succeeded using khadi as a source to inspire the Indian people but there were many with different opinions.
- The British machines made clothes which were much cheaper as compared to khadi. Poverty rate was very high in India, so most of the poor started adopting foreign clothes.
- The wealthy Parsis of western India: were among the first to adapt Western- style clothing because western clothes were a sign of modernity and progress.
- Though Motilal Nehru gave up his expensive Western-style suits and adopted the Indian dhoti and kurta but these were not made up of coarse material as suggested by Gandhiji.
- As the caste system in India was very rigid and the western dress style was for all, so many people adopted it for self-respect and equality.
Question.3 What were the changes that came to be seen in women’s clothing as a result of two World Wars? Explain. [CBSE March 2013]
How were the two World Wars responsible in bringing changes in women’s clothing?
[CBSE March 2011,13,15] Or
“Changes in women clothing came about as a result of two World Wars”. Explain the statement with examples. [CBSE March 2011]
- Women and work: Before the First World War most of the women in Europe were not working in factories. But by 1917, more than 7,00,000 women in Britain were employed in ammunition factories. As they were going to work they needed clothes that were comfortable and convenient. They started wearing a working uniform of blouse and trouser.
Clothes became plainer and simpler. Skirts became shorter.
- No jewellery: Most of the working women stopped wearing jewellery and luxurious clothes.
- Change in school dress : Even schools started emphasising the importance of plain dressing, and discouraged ornamentation. With the introduction of gymnastics and games women started wearing clothes that did not hamper movement.
- Change in colour: Before the War people used to wear bright coloured clothes but during the War bright colours faded from sight and only sober colours were worn. Thus, clothes became plainer and simpler.
Question.4 Explain the â€˜shoe respect’ controversy. [CBSE March 2013]
- In different cultures, specific items of clothing often convey contrary meanings. This frequently leads to misunder-standing and conflict.
- At the beginning of the nineteenth century, it was customary for British officials to follow Indian customs and traditions and to remove their footwear in the courts of ruling kings or chiefs.
- In 1824-1828, Governor General Amherst insisted that Indians take their shoes off as a sign of respect when they appeared before him, but this was not strictly followed.
- By the mid-nineteenth century, when Lord Dalhousie was Governor-General, â€˜shoe respect’ was made stricter, and Indians were made to take off their shoes when entering any government institution; only those who wore European clothes were exempted from this rule.
- Many Indian government servants were increasingly uncomfortable with these rules.
Question.5 Explain how clothes were used by Gandhiji as a powerful weapon to protest against the British rule.
[CBSE March 2011]
How did Mahatma Gandhi’s idea of Khadi become a symbolic weapon against British rule?
[CBSE March 2012,15] Or
“Despite its limitations the experiment with Swadeshi gave Mahatma Gandhi important ideas about using cloth as a symbolic weapon against British rule.”Explain. [CBSE March 2012]
- Mahatma Gandhi’s dream was to clothe the whole nation in khadi. He felt khadi would be a means of erasing difference between religions, classes, etc.
- He made spinning on the charkha and daily use of Khadi, or coarse doth made from homespun yarn, very powerful symbols. These were not only symbols of self-reliance but also of resistance to the use of British mill- made cloth.
- In Durban in 1913, Gandhiji first appeared in a lungi and kurta with his head shaved as a sign of mourning to protest against the shooting of Indian coal miners.
- On his return to India in 1915, he decided to dress like a Kathiawadi peasant.
- He adopted the short dhoti in 1921 and wore it until his death because according to him it was the dress of a poor Indian.
- Khadi, white and coarse was to him a sign of purity, of simplicity and of poverty. Wearing it became also a symbol of nationalism, a rejection of western mill-made cloth.
Higher Order Thinking Skills (Hots) Questions/Application Based Questions
Question.l Who were Jacobians? What changes did the Jacobians bring in the clothing of France after 1789?
Answer. Jacobians were the people of middle class who actively participated in the French Revolution.
- They decided to start wearing striped trousers similar to those worn by dock workers.
- They also started the trend of loose clothes.
- They also started using other political symbols like red cap of liberty, and the revolutionary cockade.
Question.2 When Western-style clothing came into India in the 19th century Indians reacted in three different ways. Explain these three ways.
How did Indian react to the Western- style of clothing which came into India in the 19th Century? Explain.
[CBSE March 2011, 2012]
“The introduction of Western-style clothing in the 19th century met with severe reactions in different ways”. Give suitable arguments in favour of the statement. [CBSE March 2011]
How did Indian’s react to Western- style clothing? [CBSE March 2011]
- Incorporation of western style: Many, especially men, began incorporating some elements of
Western-style clothing in their dress. The wealthy Parsis of Western India were among the first to adapt Western- style clothing. The Baggy trousers and the phenta (or hat) were added to long collarless coats, with boots and a walking slick to complete the look of the gentleman. To some, Western clothes were a sign of modernity and progress.
- Dalits and western clothes: Western-style clothing was also especially attractive to groups of dalit converts to Christianity who now found it liberating. Here too, it was men – rather than women who affected the new dress styles.
- Reaction of conservatives: There were many Indians who were against westernisation of clothes. The traditional Indians were convinced that western culture would lead to a loss of traditional cultural identity. According to orthodox people western- styles clothes were taken as a sign of the world turning upside down.
- Dress according to time: There were some Indians who resolved the dilemma by wearing both types of clothes. They started wearing western clothes without giving up their Indian dress. For example, many Bengali bureaucrats began stocking western- style clothes for work outside the home and changed into more comfortable Indian clothes at home. There were some who started combining western and Indian forms of dressing.
- British rule and dress code: In different cultures, specific items of clothing often convey contrary meanings. The turban in India was not just for protection from the heat but was a sign of respectability, and could not be removed at will. Whereas the hat had to be removed before social superiors as a sign of respect.
Question.3 How were women of 17th century different from that of 21st century with respect to cloth and political rights?
- From the childhood the women of 19th century grew up to believe that having a small waist was womanly duty.
Suffering pain was essential to being a Woman. To be seen as attractive, to be womanly, they had to wear the corset. The torture and pain this inflicted on the body was to be accepted as normal whereas the women of 21st century are free to wear whatever they like.
- The women of 19th century was without any political rights. They were passive citizens. In the 21st century in most of the nations women have political rights equal to men.
Question. 4 Distinguish between the clothing styles of European women before and after the 17th century.
Value Based Questions
Question.1 Which moral values were ignored by the strict social and food dress codes of the 19th century India?
Question.2 Mahatma Gandhi, used to spin charka and wear khadi clothes. Which moral values is being reflected in this act of Gandhiji?
- Self reliance
(i) Mention any two reactions of women to Victorian norms of clothing.
(ii) Mention any two moral values you have learnt from such a reaction.
(i) (a) By the 1830s women in England began agitating for democratic rights. As the suffrage movement
developed, many began campaigning for dress reforms.
(b) Women’s magazines described how tight dress and corsets caused deformities and illness among young girls.
(ii) (a) Right to protest.
(b) Right to speak or write.
Question.4 “Styles of clothing in France emphasised differences between men mid women.”Explain. [CBSE2014]
- Women in Victorian England were groomed from childhood to be docile and dutiful, submissive and obedient. The ideal woman was one who could bear pain and suffering. While men were expected to be serious, strong, independent and aggressive, women were seen as frivolous, â€˜delicate, passive and docile.
- Norms of clothing reflected these ideals. From childhood, girls were tightly laced up and dressed in stays. The effort was to restrict the growth of their bodies, contain them within small moulds. When slightly older, girls had to wear tight fitting corsets.
- Tightly laced, small-waisted women were admired as attractive, elegant and graceful. Clothing thus played a part in creating the image of frail, submissive Victorian women.
- The ideals were in the air they breathed, the literature they read, the education they had received at school and at home. From childhood they grew up to believe that having a small waist was a womanly duty. Suffering pain was essential to being a woman. To be seen as attractive, to be womanly, they had to wear the corset. The torture and pain this inflicted on the body was to be accepted as normal.
Question.5 â€˜The cloth we wear can be used to disintegrate or unite the society’. Explain by giving examples.
- The Sumptuary laws prevailing in France were used to disintegrate the society as these laws forbade socially inferior people wearing certain clothes.
- Many Indian nationalists decided to search for a national dress to promote national unity.
- Mahatma Gandhi used cloth as a symbolic weapon against British rule.
- The Nairs an upper caste attacked women of the Shanar caste for wearing a cloth across their upper bodies.
Some Important Questions of History
Question.1 What were the factors responsible for deforestation in the 17th century? Mention any two.
Question.2 How deforestation under colonial rule was different from ealier period?
Question.3 In the colonial period cultivation expanded rapidly for a variety of reasons. Mention any two. .
Question.4 How the disappearance of forests in England lead to deforestation in India?
Question.5 What was Dietrich Brandis plan to check deforestation?
Question.6 What was the name given to the best forests under the Forest Act?
Question.7 What is shifting agriculture?
Question.8 Name any leader of tribal forest movement in India. .
Question.9 In 1910, mango boughs, a lump of earth, -Chillies and arrows began circulating between villages of Bastar. Give reason.
Question.10 Who were Kalangs ?
Question.11 What was a scorched earth policy followed by Dutch during the Second World War?
Question.12 What was blandongdiensten system?
Question.13 “Foresters and villagers had very different ideas of what a good forest should look like.”Explain by giving two examples.
Question.14 Mention any two factors which prompted the people of Bastar to rebel against the Britishers.
Question.15 Who are Gujjar Bakarwals ?
Question.16 Gujjar Bakarwals move annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds. Give reason.
Question.17 Who are Gaddis ?
Question.18 Name a pastoralist community of Central Plateau
Question.19 Why the Konkani peasants welcome the Dhangars, a pastoralist community of Maharashtra ?
Question.20 How is the seasonal rhythm of movement of Gujjars different from that of Dhangars ?
Question.21 What were Reserved Forests ?
Question.22 What were Protected Forests ?
Question.23 Why pastoralist were not allowed to access to Reserved Forests ?
Question.24 The colonial government introduced various restrictions on the movement of pastoralist and these pastoralists reacted to these changes in a variety of ways. Mention any two such ways.
Question.25 Pastoral groups were sustained by a careful consideration of a host of factors. Mention any two.
Question.26 “From the mid-nineteenth century, Waste Land Rules were enacted in various parts of the country”Give reasons.
Question.27 What are the major activities of the nomadic communities of Africa?
Question.28 Name the Act Which was passed by the British government to limit the movement of the nomadic people, Mention any two features of the Act.
Question.29 Which continent has the largest population of pastoralists?
Question.30 Name any four pastoralist communities of Africa.
Question.31 Who are Maasai ?
Question.32 Who were the Elders in the Maasai community?
Question.33 Who were the Warriors in the Maasai community?
Question.34 What was importance of raiding in the Maasai community?
Question.35 To administer the affairs of the Maasai, the British introduced a series of measures that had important implications. The social changes in Maasai society occurred at two levels. What were these two levels?
Question.36 What was the basic cause of Captain Swing movement?
Question.37 What was westward expansion?
Question.38 “Plant more wheat, wheat will win the war ? Who said these words and when ?
Question.39 When the new settlers entered the mid western Prairie, the simple ploughs the farmers had used in the eastern coastal areas of the USA proved ineffective. Give reason.
Question.40 Who invented the first mechanical reaper? What was its advantage ?
Question.41 For the poor farmers of USA, new machines brought misery. Justify by giving two reasons.
Question.42 Mention the factors responsible for the Dust Bowl tragedy.
Question.43 Why did the East India Company persuade the Indian farmers to grow opium?
Question.44 Name any two princely states where opium was being produced under the British.
Question.45 When and where the Cricket grew ?
Question.46 What gave the cricket its unique nature ?
Question.47 Till the middle of the eighteenth century,. bats were roughly the same shape as hockey sticks, curving
outwards at the bottom. Give reason.
Question.48 Games like football and hockey, are strictly time-limited where as there was no time limit for cricket. Give reason.
Question.49 Captains of cricket teams, whether club teams or national sides, were always amateurs. Who was the first professional captain ?
Question.50 On what basis the Victorian empire builders justified the conquest of other countries?
Question.51 When was India’s first Cricket club established ?
Question.52 What is decolonisation ?
Question.53 Which two countries dominated the International Cricket Conference as late as 1965 ?
Question.54 How South Africa followed the policy of segregation in cricket ?
Question.55 Who were Sans culottes ?
Question.56 Name the colours which became the symbol of patriotism in France.
Question.57 What was Suffrage movement ?
Question.58 Which Indian Community was the first . to adapt the Western style clothing in India?
Question.59 Why the Indian Parsis and dalits adapted the Western style clothing ?
Question.60 When and why was Bengal partitioned ?
Question.61 Which movement was launched against the partition of Bengal ?