Important Questions for CBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 4 Food Security In India
Very Short Answer Type Questions (I Mark each)
Question.1. What is food security ?
Answer. Food security means availability, accessibility and affordability of food to all people at all times.
Question.2. Name any two factors on which the food security depends upon.
Answer. (i) Buffer stock.
(ii) Public Distribution System (PDS).
(iii) Vigilancy of the government at the time of natural calamity.
(iv) Food production.
Question.3. Name the two dimensions of hunger.
Answer. Chronic : It is a consequence of diets persistently inadequate in terms of quantity and/or quality.
Seasonal: It is related to the cycles of food growing and harvesting.
Question.4. Mention any two factors responsible for seasonal hunger.
Answer. (i) Seasonal hunger is related to the cycle of food growing and harvesting. This is prevalent in rural areas because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities.
(ii) Seasonal hunger is prevalent in urban areas due to lack of job opportunities.
Question.5. What is chronic hunger ? Name any one factor responsible for chronic hunger.
Answer. It is a consequence of diets persistently inadequate in terms of quantity and/or quality. Very low income is one of the basic cause of chronic hunger.
Question.6.Define Green Revolution.[CBSE 2015]
Answer.The Green Revolution implies large increase in agricultural production due to use of high yielding varieties of seeds and other inputs such as manure, fertilizers, etc.
Question.7. What is buffer stock ?
Answer. Buffer stock is the stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food Corporation of India (FCI).
Question.8. What is minimum support price ?[CBSE 2015]
Answer. The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops. This price is called Minimum Support Price. The MSP is before the sowing season to provide incentives to the farmers for raising the production of these crops declared by the government every year.
Question.9. What is issue price ? [CBSE 2015]
Answer. It is a price at which foodgrains are distributed in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price.
Question.10. What are the functions of the FCI ? Mention any two.
Answer. (i) The Food Cooperation of India or FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in the states, where there is surplus production.
(ii) It also builds the buffer stock.
Question.11. What is Public Distribution System (PDS) ?
Answer. Under public distribution system or the PDS, the Government has opened more than 4.6 lakh ration shops all over the country to distribute foodgrains and other essential goods to the poor people at reasonable rates.
Question.12. What is the Targeted Public Distribution System ?
Answer. In order to ensure availability of minimum quantity of food grains to the families living below the poverty line, the Government launched the TPDS or the Targeted Public Distribution System in June 1997. It was intended to benefit about six crore poor families in the country for whom a quantum of 72 lakh tonnes of foodgrains was earmar- ked annually at the rate of 10kg per family per month.
It was introduced to adopt the principle of targeting the â€˜poor in all areas’.
Question.13. Name any two Yojanas introduced with one objective of each for food security.
Answer. (i) National Food for Work Programme : Under this, foodgrains are provided to the states free of cost.
(ii) Antyodaya Anna Yojana: Under this 25 kg of food- grains were made available to each eligible family at a subsidised price.
Question.14. Mention any two limitations of the Public Distribution System (PDS).
Answer. (i) Resorting of PDS dealers to malpractices.
(ii) Irregular opening of shops.
Question.15. What are cooperative societies?
Answer. The cooperative societies are the societies which are run by the local people, who are democratically elected by the people. These cooperative societies provide people the basic necessities of life like foodgrains, milk, vegetables, etc. at reasonable rates.
Question.16. Mention the names of any four cooperative societies working in different states of India.
Answer. (i) Mother Dairy- Delhi
(iv) Academy of Development Science- Maharashtra
Question.17. What is a subsidy ?
Answer. A subsidy is a payment that a government makes to a producer to supplement the market price of a commodity. Subsidies can keep consumer prices low while maintaining a higher income for domestic producers.
Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)
Question. 1. Explain the major dimensions of food security.
Answer. Food security has the following dimensions:
- Availability of food: It means food production within the country, food imports and the previous years stock stored in government granaries.
- Accessibility : It means food is within reach of every person.
- Affordability : It implies that an individual has enough money to buy sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet one’s dietary needs.
Question. 2. Mention the major features of Public Distribution system of India.
- The PDS has proved to be the most effective instrument of government policy over the years in stabilising prices and making food available to consumers at affordable prices.
- It has been instrumental in averting widespread hunger and famine by supplying food from surplus regions of the country to the deficit ones.
- The system, including the minimum support price and procurement has contributed to an increase in foodgrain production and provided income security to farmers in certain regions.
- It has minimized hoarding and black marketing.
Question. 3. What are the limitations of the public distribution system ?[CBSE 2015]
- Failed to remove hunger : The PDS has been working for many years but still hunger is prevailing in the Indian society.
- Overflowing godowns : The FCI godowns are overflowing with foodgrains. In 2012 the stock of wheat and rice was 82.3 million tonnes which was much more than the minimum stock. There is a general consensus that high level of buffer stock of foodgrains is very undesirable and can be wasteful.
- Poor foodgrain quality: As most of godowns have more stock than their capacity, this leads to deterioration in grain quality.
- Adverse impact on the environment: Due to incentive by the government most of the states are producing only rice and wheat. The intensive utilization of water in the cultivation of rice has led to environmental degradation and fall in the water level, threatening the sustain- ability of the agricultural development in many states.
Question. 4. How is food security ensured in India ?
Answer. Food security in India has two components:
(a) Buffer stock
(b) Public distribution system.
(a) Buffer Stock: Buffer Stock is the stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food Corporation of India (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production.
The purchased foodgrains are stored in granaries. This is done to distribute foodgrains in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price, also known as Issue Price. This helps in resolving the problem of shortage of food.
(b) Public distribution system : The stored food is distributed to the poor people through ration shops. The items are sold to the poor people at a price lower than the market price.
Other schemes : Over the years, several new programmes have been launched like mid-day meal, Antyodaya Ana Yojana, etc. for food security.
Question. 5. Why is buffer stock created by the Government ?
- Food security: The main objective of the buffer stock is to distribute the foodgrains in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price.
- Disaster or Calamity : The second objective of the buffer stock is to resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during the period of calamity.
- To save the farmers from the ups and downs of the market: The third important objective of the buffer stock is to save the farmers from ups and downs of the market. Under this farmers are paid a preannounced price for their crops. This price is declared by the government before the sowing season to provide incentives to the farmers.
- Uninterrupted supply of foodgrains: Buffer stocks are also created by the government to maintain uninterrupted supply of foodgrains throughout India and throughout the year.
Question. 6. Write a note on the role of cooperatives in providing food and related items.
- The cooperatives are also playing an important role in food security in India especially in the southern and western parts of the country.
- The cooperative societies set up shops to sell low priced goods to poor people. For example, out of all fair price shops running in Tamil Nadu, around 94 per cent are being run by the cooperatives.
- Many milk purchasing cooperatives like Verka, Mother Dairy, Amul, etc. have brought about the White Revolution in the country.
- These are a few examples of many more cooperatives running in different parts of the country ensuring food security of different sections of society.
Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks)
Question.1. Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India/CBSE March 2012]
Explain any three causes for the widespread poverty in India.[CBSE March 2012,13,15]
- British Rule : Britishers ruled
India more than 100 years. Prior to the British rule, traditional industries, for instance, textiles, flourished in India. During the British rule, the government adopted policies to discourage such industries. This left millions of weavers poor. Even after fifty years of independent India, we can find a major section of the people engaged handicraft industries as downtrodden.
- Lack of industrialisation : India is very backward from the industrial point of view. Hardly 3 per cent of the total working population is engaged in the large- scale industry.
- Over dependence on agriculture: Even after more than 60 years of independence more than 60 per cent of our total population still depends on agriculture for its livelihood. Due to shortage of inputs, our agriculture is backward.
- Inflationary pressure : Upward trend in prices adversely affects the poor sections of the society.
- Unemployment : Due to lack of job opportunities, more than 90 lakhs of our total working force is unemployed.
Question.2. Explain the major limitations of Public Distribution System.
- Stock higher than buffer norms : The actual stock has always remained higher than the buffer. There is a general consensus that high level of buffer stocks of food- grains is very undesirable and can be wasteful. The storage of massive food stocks has been responsible for high carrying costs, in addition to wastage and deterioration in grain quality.
- High burden on the economy :
The Minimum Support Price for food grains has risen very sharply in the recent years leading to a very high burden on state exchequer.
- Threat to sustainability of agriculture : The intensive utilisation of water in the cultivation of rice has also led to environmental degrada-tion and fall in the water level, threatening the sustainability of the agricultural development in many states.
- Marked ineffectiveness :
Another major area of concern is the marked ineffectiveness of PDS, which is apparent from the fact that the average consumption of PDS grain at the all-India level is only 1 kg per person per month. The average consumption figure is as low as less than 300 gm per person per month in the states of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
- Corrupt dealers: PDS dealers are sometimes found resorting to malpractices like diverting the grains to open market to get better margin, selling poor quality grains at ration shops, irregular opening of the shops, etc. It is common to find that ration shops regularly have unsold stocks of poor quality grains left.
Higher Prefer Thinking Skills (Hots) Questions/Application Based Questions
Question.1. Study the graph and answer the following questions:
(i) In which recent year foodgrain stock with the government was maximum ?
(ii) What was the minimum buffer stock norm in 2012 ?
(iii) Why were the FCI granaries overflowing with foodgrains ?
(iv) What is buffer stock ?
(v) Why is there general consensus that high level of buffer stock of foodgrains is very undesirable ?
- July, 2012.
- 33 million tonnes.
- The PDS or the Public Distribution System has failed to distribute foodgrains through the fair price shops.
- A stock of foodgrains procured by the government to distribute in deficit areas and among the poor strata of society.
- The higher level of buffer stock can be wasteful. The storage of massive food stock has been responsible for high carrying costs in adition to wastage and deterioration in grain quality.
Question.2. Distinguish between chronic and seasonal hunger.
Value Based Questions
Question.1. Which are the people who are prone
to food insecurity in India ?
- Food insecure in rural areas :
Although a large section of people suffer from food and nutrition insecurity in India, the worst affected groups are landless people , with little or no land to depend upon, traditional artisans, providers of traditional services, petty self employed workers and destitutes including beggars.
- Food insecure in urban areas :
In the urban areas, the food insecure families are those whose working members are generally employed in ill-paid occupations and casual labour market. These workers are largely engaged in seasonal activities and are paid very low wages that just ensure bare survival.
- Social composition and food insecurity: The social composition along with the inability to buy food also plays a role in food insecurity. The SCs, STs and some sections of the OBCs (lower castes among them) who have either poor land-base or very low land productivity are prone to food insecurity.
- Migrants and people affected by natural disasters : The people affected by natural disasters, who have to migrate to other areas in search of work, are also among the most food insecure people.
- Food insecurity within a family : A high incidence of malnutrition prevails among women. This is a matter of serious concern as it puts even the unborn baby at the risk of malnutrition. A large proportion Of pregnant and nursing mothers and children under the age of 5 years constitute an important segment of the food insecure population.
Question.2. Explain the role of Public Distribution System in food security.
How does PDS ensures food security in India ? (CBSE 2014)
Mention major features of Public Distribution System in India.[CBSE 2012,13]
- Government regulated shops :
The food procured by the FCI is distributed through government regulated ration shops among the poorer section of the society. This is called the public distribution system (PDS). Ration shops are now present in most localities, villages, towns and cities. There are about 5.5 lakh ration shops all over the country.
- Food at lower cost: Ration shops also known as Fair Price Shops keep stock of foodgrains, sugar, kerosene oil for cooking. These items are sold to people at a price lower than the market price.
- Stabilising prices : The PDS has proved to be the most effective instrument of government policy over the years in stabilising prices and making food available to consumers at affordable prices. It has been instrumental in averting widespread hunger and famine by supplying food from surplus regions of the country to the deficit ones.
- Increase in food production :
The system, including the minimum support price and procurement has contributed to an increase in foodgrain production and provided income security to farmers in certain regions.
Question.3. Name the place a poor person should go to purchase essential goods at reasonable rates.
Answer. Fair price shop
Question.4. Your family comes under poorest of the poor. Under which of the government scheme you can get cheap ration?
Answer. Antyodaya Anna Yojana.
Question.5. Why is there a need for food security in India ? Suggest any two points.
Answer. (i) Poverty.
(ii) Hoarding and black marke- ting.
Question.6. What are the functions of the FCI ? Mention any two functions.
Answer. (i) To make the foodgrains available to the poor a reasonable price.
(ii) To maintain a price stability of foodgrains.