NCERT Solutions CBSE Class 10 Geography Forest and Wild Resources
Q. 1. Multiple Choice Questions
(i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for the depletion of flora and fauna ?
(b) Large-scale developmental projects.
(c) Grazing and fuel wood collection.
(d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.
Ans. (c) Grazing and fuel wood collection is not a valid reason for the depletion of flora and fauna because a substantial part of the fuel- fodder demand is met by lopping rather than by felling entire trees.
(ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation ?
(a) Joint Forest Management.
(b) Beej Bachao Andolan.
(c) Chipko Movement.
(d) Demarcation of Wildlife Sanctuaries.
Ans. (d) Demarcation of Wildlife Sanctuaries.
Q. 4. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:
(i) What is biodiversity ? Why is biodiversity important for human lives ? [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011, 2012]
(ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna ? Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011, 14]
Analyse any four reasons for the depletion of forest resources in India. [CBSE 2010(D) 2012]
Write any three factors which are responsible for large scale deforestation in India. [CBSE Sept. 2011,14]
Ans. (i) Biodiversity is the sum total of all the varieties of species of plants, animals and micro-organisms living on the earth. It also includes the habitats in which they live. Some scientists estimate that more than 10 million species live on our earth and some believe that this number can be more than 100 million.
Importance of biodiversity :
1. Planet for all : The planet Earth is not only for human beings alone. All living beings share this planet with millions of other living beings, starting from the micro-organisms to blue whales. There are different kinds of animals, plants and other living as well as non-living things.
2. Complex web : We, humans along with all other living organisms form a complex web of ecological system in which we are only a part and very much dependent on this system for our own existence. There is a multiple network of interdependence, i.e., all the organisms depend upon each other for their survival. For example, the plants, animals and micro-organisms recreate the quality , of the air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil that is used to produce food.
(ii) Human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna as discussed below :
1. Overutilisation of forests : In the earlier days, man’s needs were limited. He was dependent on forests only for a few things, although a lot of things can be obtained from forests. Forests are being used to fulfil man’s needs directly and indirectly. We are obtaining wood, barks, leaves, rubber, medicine, dyes, food, fuel, fodder, etc., from forests.
2. Colonial Plans : The greatest damage inflicted on Indian forests was during the colonial period due to the expansion of the railways, agriculture, commercial and scientific forestry and mining activities.
3. Agricultural expansion : Even after independence, agricultural expansion continues to be one of the major causes of depletion. Between 1951 and 1980, according to, the Forest Survey of India, over 26,200 sq. km. of forest areas were converted into agricultural lands all over India.
4. Multi-purpose river projects : Multi-purpose river projects have also contributed significantly to the loss of forests. Since, 1951, over 5,000 sq. km. of forests were cleared for river valley projects and is still continuing with projects like the Narmada Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh, which would inundate about 40,000 hectares of forest area.
5. Mining : Mining is another important factor behind deforestation. Mining operation needs big machines, labour, roads, railways, etc. All these lead to deforestation. The mining activities have blocked the migration route of several species, including the great Indian elephants, thus, disturbing their natural habitat.
6. Grazing and fuel wood collection : Overgrazing of land also leads to soil erosion. In many parts of India, hill sides have become barren because of overgrazing by animals. According to some forests and environmentalists, deforestation has also been caused by wood collection.
Q. 5. Answer the following questions in about 120 words :
(i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India ?
(ii) Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.
With the help of three examples show how communities have carried out conservation of flora and fauna in India. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2012]
Ans. Refer Q.No. 6, Value Based.