Management of Natural Resources – CBSE Notes for Class 10 Science

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1. Coliform is a group of bacteria, found in human intestines, whose presence in water indicates contamination by disease-causing microorganisms.

2. In 1985, our government started a multi-crore project named as ‘Ganga Action Plan’. The main aim of this project is to improve the water quality of Our holy river Ganga.

3. The water of river Ganga gets polluted because of the following reasons :
(a) Dumping of untreated sewage.
(b) Human activities like bathing or washing of clothes.
(c) Immersion of ashes or unburnt corpses.
(d) Chemical effluents from industries.
This all pollutes water, increasing the toxicity level which kills fish in large sections of the river.

4. One should keep in mind the three R’s to save the environment:
Reduce : Using less and less of natural resources.
One can help by switching off unnecessary lights and fans, repairing leaky taps, preventing wastage of food. Recycling: It minimises the faster depletion of natural resources.
Reuse: It is better than recycling because the process of recycling uses some energy.

5. Economic development is linked to environmental conservation.

6. The concept of sustainable development encourages forms of growth that meet current basic human needs, while preserving the resources for the needs of future generation.

7. The sustainable development : It implies a change in all aspects of life. It depends upon the willingness of the people to change their perceptions of the socioeconomic and environmental conditions around them and the readiness of each individual to alter their present use of natural resources.

8. Sustainable natural resource management demands the following:

  1. Using resources carefully because these are not unlimited.
  2. A long term perspective so that these resources will last for the generations to come and will not merely be exploited for short-term gains.
  3. Equitable distribution of resources so that all and not just a handful of rich and powerful people, benefit from the development of these resources.
  4. Checking the damage caused to the environment while these resources are either extracted or used,
  5. Planning for the safe disposal of the waste which is generated when natural resources are either extracted or used.

9. Forests are ‘biodiversity hot spots’. One measure of the biodiversity area is the number of different species found there. However, the range of different life forms (such as bacteria, fungi, ferns, flowering plants, nematodes, insects, birds, reptiles and so on) is also important.

10. One of the main aim of conservation is to try and preserve the biodiversity that we have inherited.

11. A loss of diversity may lead to a loss of ecological stability.

12. Forest resources ought to be used in a manner that is both environmentally and developmentally sound.

13. The destruction of forests not only affects the availability of forest products, but also the quality of soil and the sources of water.

14. Despite nature’s monsoon bounty, failure to sustain water availability underground has resulted largely from the loss of vegetation cover, diversion for high water demanding crops and pollution from industrial effluents and urban wastes.

15. Dams are built to ensure the storage of adequate water not only for irrigation but also for generating electricity. However, building of large dams cause social, economic and environmental problem.

16. Watershed Management: Watershed management emphasises scientific soil and water conservation in order to increase the biomass production. The aim is to develop primary resources of land and water, to produce secondary resources of plants and animals for use in a manner which will not cause ecological imbalance. Watershed management not only increase the production and income of the watershed
: community, but also mitigates droughts and floods and increases the life of the downstream dam and reservoirs.

17. The Chipko Andolan (‘Hug the Trees Movement’) :
It started in a remote village called Reni in Garhwal in early 1970s. In this movement, women of the village used to clasp the tree trunks thus preventing the felling of trees.
Role of Chipko Andolan :

  1. It helped in conservation and preservation of forests, one of the most important natural resources.
  2. It allowed the village communities to utilise the forest produce and allowing the resource to replenish over time.
  3. It taught people that, the destruction of forests not only affects the availability of forest products but also the quality of soil and the sources of water.
  4. It forced government to rethink the priorities of the local people (to whom the forests belong) in the use of forest produce.
  5. It encouraged the participation of the local people in the efficient management of forests.

18. Stakeholders of forest:

  1. People living in or around forest: They depend on forest produce for their living.
  2. The forest Department of the Government : Which owns the land and controls the resources from forests.
  3. The industrialists : Who use various forest produce as raw material, but are not dependent on the forest in any orie area.
  4. The wildlife and nature enthusiasts: Who want to conserve nature in its pristine form.

19. Water harvesting : It is an age-old concept in India which involves capturing rainwater in the large structures which can hold this water round the year. The main purpose is not only to hold the surface water but also to recharge the groundwater beneath.
Advantages of water harvesting :

  1. The water does not evaporate, but spreads out to recharge wells and provides moisture for vegetation over a wide area.
  2. It does not provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes like stagnant water collected in ponds or artificial lakes.
  3. The groundwater is also relatively protected . from contamination by human and animal
  4. It raises the groundwater level.