Non Finites CBSE Class 10 English Grammar

Non Finites CBSE Class 10 English Grammar

Non Finites:

Non-finite is a form of verb that does not display a distinction in tense, in contrast with a finite verb, where there is a distinction between present tense and past tense. Eg. hopes , hoped . A non-finite verb is either infinitive, participle or gerund.
The infinitive is the base of a verb, often followed by ‘ to ‘ as;
1. To err is human.
2. Birds love to sing.
In sentence one the infinitive like a noun is the subject of the verb ‘ is ‘.
In sentence two the infinitive like a noun is the object of the verb ‘ love ‘.
After certain verbs like bid , let etc we use the infinitive without ‘to’ as;
1. Bid him go there.
2. Let him sit here.
Participle
A participle is a word, which is partly a verb and partly an adjective.
In the sentence
Hearing the noise the boy woke up,
The phrase hearing the noise, which is introduced by a participle, is called a participle phrase and according to the latter part of the definition, it is an adjective phrase.
Gerund
A gerund is that form of the verb, which ends in -ing and has the force of a noun and a verb.
As both, gerund and the infinitive have the forces of a noun and a verb, they have the same uses.
Thus in many sentences, either of them may be used without any special difference in meaning such as;
Teach me to swim.
Or
Teach me swimming.
To give is better than to receive.
Or
Giving is better than receiving.
Further Explanation
A non-finite verb (or a verbal ) is a verb form that is not limited by a subject and, more generally, is not marked by tense, aspect, mood, number, gender, and person. As a result, a non-finite verb cannot generally serve as the main verb in an independent clause; rather, it heads a non-finite clause.
A non-finite verb acts simultaneously as a verb and as another part of speech; it can take adverbs and certain kinds of verb arguments, producing a verbal phrase (i.e., non-finite clause), and this phrase then plays a different role — usually noun, adjective, or adverb — in a greater clause. This is the reason for the term verbal ; non-finite verbs have traditionally been classified as verbal nouns , verbal adjectives , or verbal adverbs .
English has three kinds of verbals:
1. participles , which function as adjectives;
2. gerunds , which function as nouns; and
3. infinitives , which have noun-like, adjective-like, and adverb-like functions.
Each of these kinds of verbals is also used in various common structures; for example, the past participle is used in forming the perfect aspect ( to have done ).
Participles
A participle is a verbal adjective that describes a noun as being a participant in the action of the verb.
The following sentences contain participles:
The talking children angered the teacher. (Here talking modifies children.)
Annoyed , Rita ate dinner by herself in the bedroom. (Here annoyed modifies Rita.)
In English, the present participle is used in forming the continuous aspect ( to be doing ); the past participle is used in forming the passive voice ( to be done ) and the perfect aspect ( to have done ).
Gerunds
A gerund is a verbal noun that refers to the action of the verb. In English, a gerund has the same form as a present participle – ending in -ing :
1.Fencing is good exercise. (Here fencing is the subject of is.)
2.Leroy expanded his skills by studying . (Here studying is the object of by.)
Infinitives
In English, the infinitive verb form is often introduced by the particle to , as in to eat or to run . The resulting phrase can then function as a subject or object, or as a modifier.
To succeed takes courage, foresight, and luck. (Here to succeed is the subject of takes.)
I don’t have time to waste . (Here to waste modifies time .
An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any related words.
wanted)
Carol was invited to speak . (Here to speak is the object of invited .)
Do not stop to chat . (Here to chat functions as an adverb modifying stop .)
An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any related words.
Paul wanted to learn silk screening . (The infinitive phrase to learn silk screening is the object of wanted)3

Non Finites verbs with examples
Types Non Finites
Non Finites in English grammar
Non Finites Examples
You can watch video lessons on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/cbsepapers/videos
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